Simply Sudan

Sudan is located in northeastern Africa, bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea to the northeast, Eritrea and Ethiopia to the east, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west, and Libya to the northwest. Its strategic location has made it a crossroads of cultures and civilizations throughout history.

Geography

Climate

Sudan experiences a predominantly arid climate, with hot temperatures and minimal rainfall in most regions. The country can be divided into three main climatic zones: the desert in the north, the semi-arid Sahel region in the center, and the savanna in the south. The northern desert regions experience scorching temperatures, while the southern savanna regions receive more rainfall and support a greater variety of vegetation.

Fauna

Sudan is home to a diverse array of wildlife, adapted to its varied landscapes. In the savanna regions, one can find species such as elephants, giraffes, lions, and various antelope species. The Nile River and its tributaries support a rich aquatic ecosystem, including Nile crocodiles and hippos. Additionally, Sudan is a crucial habitat for migratory birds, particularly along the Nile’s banks.

Longest Rivers

Sudan is blessed with the Nile River, the longest river in the world, which flows through its territory from south to north. The White Nile and the Blue Nile converge in Khartoum, the capital city, before continuing northward towards Egypt. Other significant rivers in Sudan include the Atbarah River and the Sobat River, both of which are tributaries of the Nile.

Highest Mountains

Sudan’s highest mountains are located in the eastern part of the country, near the border with Eritrea and Ethiopia. Mount Kinyeti, also known as Jebel Kinyeti, is the highest peak in Sudan, rising to an elevation of approximately 3,187 meters (10,456 feet) above sea level. Other notable mountains include Mount Abu Dom and Mount Marrah.

History

Prehistory

Sudan has a rich archaeological heritage dating back to ancient times. The region was inhabited by various indigenous peoples, including the Nubians and the Kingdom of Kush, who left behind impressive monuments and artifacts. The ancient city of Meroe, with its pyramids and temples, is a testament to Sudan’s illustrious past.

Ancient Kingdoms

Sudan was home to several powerful kingdoms and civilizations, including the Kingdom of Kush, which flourished along the Nile River from the 8th century BCE to the 4th century CE. The Kingdom of Kush was known for its advanced civilization, monumental architecture, and thriving trade networks with Egypt and the Mediterranean world.

Islamic Conquest

In the 7th century CE, Islam spread to Sudan through trade routes and conquests, leading to the establishment of Muslim states and the Arabization of the population. The Funj Sultanate, which ruled much of Sudan from the 16th to the 19th centuries, was a prominent Islamic state known for its cultural and economic prosperity.

Colonialism and Independence

Sudan came under British and Egyptian joint rule in the 19th century, known as the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium, until it gained independence in 1956. The post-independence period was marked by political instability, including two civil wars between the north and south over issues of religion, ethnicity, and resources. South Sudan seceded from Sudan in 2011, becoming an independent nation.

Demographics

Sudan has a diverse population comprising various ethnic groups, with the majority being Arab and African descent. The population is predominantly Muslim, with Islam being the official religion of the country. Arabic is the official language, although several indigenous languages are also spoken, including Nubian, Beja, and Fur.

Administrative Divisions

Sudan is divided into 18 states, each with its own government and administrative structure. Here are the administrative divisions along with their respective populations:

  1. Khartoum State – Population: 6.5 million
  2. Northern State – Population: 2.7 million
  3. River Nile State – Population: 1.6 million
  4. Red Sea State – Population: 1.4 million
  5. Kassala State – Population: 2.5 million
  6. North Darfur State – Population: 2.7 million
  7. South Darfur State – Population: 2.2 million
  8. West Darfur State – Population: 1.6 million
  9. East Darfur State – Population: 1.3 million
  10. White Nile State – Population: 1.7 million
  11. Blue Nile State – Population: 1.2 million
  12. North Kordofan State – Population: 3.1 million
  13. South Kordofan State – Population: 1.4 million
  14. West Kordofan State – Population: 1.2 million
  15. Sennar State – Population: 2.6 million
  16. Gadarif State – Population: 2.1 million
  17. West Kurdufan State – Population: 1.5 million
  18. Central Darfur State – Population: 1.5 million

10 Largest Cities by Population

The largest cities in Sudan by population are:

  1. Khartoum – Population: 2.9 million
  2. Omdurman – Population: 2.4 million
  3. Port Sudan – Population: 537,000
  4. Kassala – Population: 444,000
  5. Al-Ubayyid – Population: 395,000
  6. Nyala – Population: 362,000
  7. Wad Madani – Population: 345,000
  8. Al-Fashir – Population: 274,000
  9. Atbara – Population: 245,000
  10. Kosti – Population: 239,000

Education Systems

Education in Sudan is free and compulsory for children aged 6 to 13, although access to education remains a challenge, particularly in rural areas. The country has made significant strides in expanding educational opportunities, with a network of schools, colleges, and universities across the country. Sudan is home to several universities, including the University of Khartoum and Sudan University of Science and Technology.

Transportation

Airports

Sudan has several international airports, with Khartoum International Airport being the busiest and most important. Other significant airports include Port Sudan International Airport, Nyala Airport, and El Fasher Airport.

Railways

Sudan has an extensive railway network operated by Sudan Railways Corporation, connecting major cities and towns across the country. The total length of the railway network is approximately 5,978 kilometers (3,717 miles), with the main line running from Khartoum to Port Sudan on the Red Sea coast.

Highways

Sudan has a network of highways and roads, although infrastructure development remains a challenge in many areas. The country’s major highways include the North-South Highway, the Khartoum-Wad Madani Highway, and the Khartoum-Port Sudan Highway.

Ports

Sudan has several major ports along the Red Sea coast, including Port Sudan, which is the country’s main seaport and a vital gateway for trade. Other significant ports include Suakin, Sawakin, and Massawa.

Country Facts

  • Population: 44 million
  • Capital: Khartoum
  • Language: Arabic (official), English
  • Religion: Islam
  • Ethnicity: Arab, African
  • Currency: Sudanese Pound (SDG)
  • ISO Country Code: SD
  • International Calling Code: +249
  • Top-Level Domain: .sd