Newspapers in Australia
According to COMPUTERANNALS.COM, Australia is a country located in Oceania. In Australia there are about 70 daily newspapers with a total edition of 4.6 million copies. (293 newspaper excl. Per 1,000 inv., 2000). Through inheritance, acquisitions, mergers and an establishment (nationally distributed The Australian, founded in 1964, 150,000 copies), Rupert Murdoch (The News Corporation) controls approximately 60% of the circulation. According to COMPUTERGEES.COM, the second largest with approximately 20% is John Fairfax Holdings with the traditionally rich newspaper The Age (founded in 1854, 230,000 copies) and since 1991 with the Canadian Conrad Black as the largest partner. The largest newspaper is the Herald Sun (founded in 1922, 575,000 copies), a 24-hour staple, formed by Murdoch through a merger in 1990.
Advertising-financed private radio was established in 1924, licensed public radio only in 1932 with the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC). Advertising-financed regional private television and license-financed national public TV (ABC) started in 1956. License funding was replaced in 1974 with annual state grants. ABC operates a TV channel, six radio channels and international Radio Australia. In order to serve Australia’s many minorities, the State launched radio stations in Sydney and Melbourne (Special Broadcasting Service) in 1975, SBS) and in 1980 opened with the same purpose a national TV channel (SBS-TV). According to CONSTRUCTMATERIALS.COM, Australia thus has two public service companies in radio and television: ABC and SBS. The commercial radio and TV stations are included in networks, which are mainly owned by The News Corporation and John Fairfax. The largest are Seven Network and Nine Network Australia. The news agency AAP Information Services (established in 1983) is newspaper owned. There are approximately 1,908 radio and 738 TV receivers per 1,000 residents (2000).
According to CALCULATORINC, aboriginal culture is regarded as the world’s oldest living. Their oldest cave paintings are considered to be more than twice as old as those found in Europe. Culture varies between different tribes, but as a common point of departure all life is part of the same system and that the earth gives man her identity.
Most of Aboriginal culture has a religious meaning (see Population and Languages). According to DENTISTRYMYTH.COM, aboriginal music is closely linked to dance and drama. Their art has attracted international attention in recent decades.
Kath Wolker (1920–1993), or Oodgeroo Noonuccal who was her Aboriginal name, is one of several writers who portrayed the Aborigines’ loss of their cultural identity in modern society.
The culture of white Australians had long held British role models, but in the late 1800s the feeling of “the Australian” grew. The literature was characterized by the hard but free life of immigrants in the magnificent nature.
The poet “Banjo” Paterson created the folk song Waltzing Matilda, which has become an unofficial national song.
During the Second World War, the feeling of an Australian distinctive character grew even stronger. The epic Patrick White (1912–1990), the epic Patrick White (1912–1990), who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1973. Among newer authors are Peter Carey, Thomas Keneally, Murray Bail, Judith Wright (1915-2000), Kate Grenville and Christina Stead (1902-1983). Some of these authors are represented in an anthology of short stories by Australian authors published in Swedish 2009: Australia tells: the future of the dream. In the novel Örfilen (The Slap) by Christos Tsiolkas gives a good picture of today’s multicultural Australia.
The art of the whites has long been European in character and followed the main international trends. However, an independent school in painting with the center in Melbourne has received international attention. Prominent artists are Sidney Nolan (1917–1992).
According to EHEALTHFACTS.ORG, Melbourne and Sydney (with its original opera house) are Australia’s premier music and theater scenes. An Australian opera singer who won world reputation was Joan Sutherland (1926–2010).
In popular music, artists and groups such as Kylie Minogue, Nick Cave, AC / DC, Midnight Oil, INXS and others have become internationally known. Australian film directors such as Peter Weir, Gillian Armstrong and Baz Luhrmann as well as actors such as Nicole Kidman, Cate Blanchett, Russell Crowe and Hugh Jackman have reached an international audience as well as Australian TV series. In the feature film Australia (2008), which, among other things, addresses the issue of Aboriginal treatment, Luhrmann directs Kidman and Jackman.
The fighter jets are taken home from the Middle East
According to EHISTORYLIB.COM, the government announces that Australia is taking home its six fighter planes from Syria and Iraq, where they are part of the US-led International Coalition against the Islamic State (IS). The decision is made after Iraq recently declared victory over IS and announced that the country was once again in full control of the border with Syria. Australia has contributed to the coalition with 780 people.
Nineteen are injured when a car hits pedestrians
Nineteen people are injured, some of them serious, when a passenger car hits pedestrians on Flinders Street in Melbourne. The man, who is arrested directly at the crime scene, is an Australian citizen with an Afghan background. He came to Australia as a refugee and is known by the police for mental health problems and substance abuse. He is said to have said that he carried out the crime in order to “treat Muslims badly”, but Prime Minister Turnbull later said that it was a “shocking crime” but an “isolated incident”. The police do not know any links between the perpetrator and extremists.
The government regains the majority in parliament
Former tennis professional John Alexander wins by a marginal margin a filling election in a South New suburb, which means the Turnbull government regains its majority in parliament. Alexander was forced to resign as a member after it was discovered that he had dual citizenship, which is prohibited by the Constitution. After giving up his British citizenship, Alexander was running for election, taking home the victory.
Final report of sexual abuse
The five-year investigation, commissioned by the government at the highest level, shows that various institutions such as schools, sports associations and churches have failed to protect children from abuse. Several of the over 4,000 institutions surveyed are part of the Catholic Church. The investigation has heard testimony from over 8,000 people who have been subjected to abuse. Over 200 charges have been brought. The final report recommends, among other things, that employees of the Catholic Church who do not report abuse should be brought to justice and that the rules on celibacy for priests should be changed. It is also proposed that a national strategy to prevent sexual abuse against children be developed.
Increasing tensions between China and Australia
The Foreign Ministry of China has called for Australia’s ambassador after the Australian government announced new legislation to prevent foreign involvement in its policy (see December 4). Relations between the countries have subsequently deteriorated.
Senate member resigns following allegations of conspiracy with China
A Labor senator resigns because of ties to a Chinese billionaire. The senator must have received payment for travel and legal assistance. He should also have opposed Labour’s policies and made China-friendly statements in connection with discussions about the conflict in the South China Sea.
Parliament adopts same-sex marriage law
A majority of the members of the House of Representatives agree to the bill to allow marriage between people of the same sex. One week ago, the proposal was approved by the Senate.
Bills must stop foreign influence
The government will present a new bill to stop infiltration and attempts to influence the country by foreign powers. Prime Minister Turnbull issued a report in June after media in Australia revealed that politicians from both the Liberal Party and Labor must have received large sums of money from billionaires who were reportedly linked to China’s Communist Party.
The government coalition wins in the general election
Barnaby Joyce, who was allowed to leave his post as Deputy Prime Minister after it was discovered he had dual citizenship, wins a re-election held to fill his seat in the House of Representatives. The Government Coalition thus takes back one of the mandates that it lost in the House of Representatives during the autumn after the crisis of citizenship settled (see November and October).
The government is investigating the banking and finance sector
A special public inquiry, a so-called Royal Commission, will be appointed to investigate the leadership and organizational culture in the banking and financial sectors and propose measures to deal with the problems of recent years. In recent years, a number of banks have been involved in scandals involving, among other things, tax and interest rate planning and insurance fraud. In August, the big bank Commonwealth Bank was accused of breaking money laundering laws.
Yes to same-sex marriage
The result of the two-month non-binding postal vote on same-sex marriage that has been going on since September is clear. Nearly 62 percent of voters want it to be allowed for people of the same sex to marry. Voting was around 80 percent. At the same time as the result is announced, Prime Minister Turnbull promises to present a bill on same-sex marriage in Parliament before Christmas.
The government loses majority in parliament
Another member of the House of Representatives, John Alexander of the Liberal Party, is forced to leave because of dual citizenship. A short time ago, Deputy Prime Minister Barnaby Joyce also had to leave for the same reason. As a result, the coalition government has lost its majority among the House’s 150 seats, and now has as many seats (74) as the opposition. However, Prime Minister Turnbull claims that the government has the support of two independent members and can therefore continue to govern.
Closure of refugee camps causes problems
According to ESTATELEARNING.COM, hundreds of asylum seekers refuse to leave the Australian refugee camp on Manus Island in Papua New Guinea when it is closed. They are worried about their safety and have locked themselves in the camp, where there is no electricity, food and water. Australia still refuses to accept them. But the refugees have previously been offered to stay in Papua New Guinea, be taken to an Australian refugee camp in Nauru or to live in Cambodia, which has entered into an agreement with Australia to receive refugees in exchange for aid.
Refugees refuse to leave the camp at Manus
When the Australian refugee camp on the island of Manus in Papua New Guinea is to be closed, after the country’s highest court in 2016 ruled that it violates the constitution, hundreds of asylum seekers are locked in the camp. They tell the media that they are afraid of how they will be treated by the locals in the community. The more than 600 men have been offered to stay in Papua New Guinea, return to their home countries, move to a similar Australian camp in Nauru or move to Cambodia, which has signed an agreement with Australia to receive refugees in exchange for aid.
Deputy Prime Minister Joyce loses parliamentary seat
According to ETHNICITYOLOGY.COM, Australia’s highest court believes in a ruling that it was wrong for Barnaby Joyce to be elected to the House of Commons in the 2016 election because he then had dual citizenship. Joyce has resigned his New Zealand citizenship which he had gained through his father coming from New Zealand. As a result of the decision, the government coalition loses its scarce majority in the lower house and must now seek support from independent MPs.
No to Aboriginal advisory bodies
The government says no to the proposal that the indigenous people should have their own representative body with an advisory position according to the constitution. The initiative was taken after a historic meeting earlier this year with leaders of indigenous peoples in the country. The government rejected the proposal that such a body would “be seen as a third chamber of Parliament”.
Draft clear boundary agreement with East Timor
The Permanent Arbitration Tribunal in The Hague announces that Canberra and Dili have agreed on a joint text for a sea border agreement and ownership of gas and oil reserves in the Timor Sea between the countries. An agreement can probably be signed in 2018.
Post vote on same-sex marriage
The voluntary vote will continue until November 7. The result of the vote is not binding on the government, but Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull has promised that if it becomes a yes, Parliament should hold a vote that could lead to a change in the country’s marriage law.
Matt Canavan, minister responsible for federal resources, resigns after discovering he has dual citizenship. He does not claim to have known about dual citizenship, but must have happened to be an Italian citizen in adulthood when his mother was registered as such. Canavan is still a senator for the time being. Earlier in July, two Senators from the Greens left their seats due to dual citizenship. According to the Constitution, Members of Parliament must have no more than one citizenship.
UN criticism of asylum policy
According to EXTRAREFERENCE.COM, UNHCR accuses Australia of failing to comply with an agreement to ease the strict refugee laws and allow some refugees brought to Nauru and Papua New Guinea to reach Australian soil. According to a settlement in November 2016, some boat refugees would be transferred to the United States if Canberra received others with relatives in Australia. According to UNCHR, Australia has continued to refuse to accept refugees.
Super ministries will strengthen the terrorist fight
To increase the fight against terrorism, the government creates a super department for security issues. Under the ministry, the country’s security services are sorted as the security police, as well as border police and the national police force. Prime Minister Turnbull also announces that the military will be granted expanded powers in connection with terrorist acts. Above all, the police should not have to exhaust all their resources before the military can be called in, but the military should be able to be engaged at an earlier stage, according to Turnbull.
Australian Cardinal is accused of sex abuse
Cardinal George Pell is being questioned by Australian police on suspicion of having committed several sexual offenses, including in his hometown of Ballarat, where hundreds of children are alleged to have been abused within the Catholic Church. Pell has been an archbishop in Melbourne and Sydney. Pell, who until now has been the Vatican’s chief financial officer, is the highest-ranking Vatican employee accused of sexual assault. However, during the legal process, he leaves his post. An initial public hearing is reported by news media scheduled for March 2018.
Gas exports are limited
From July, the government will impose restrictions on how much natural gas producers may export abroad. There is a shortage of energy in the country, including in South Australia, and according to the government, many gas suppliers have prioritized selling gas abroad rather than delivering to the domestic market. However, the Government stresses that the restrictions are temporary.
Gigantic hydropower project is planned
According to EZINERELIGION.COM, Prime Minister Turnbull announces that billions of Australian dollars will be spent on expanding the hydropower in the Snowy Mountains of New South Wales. According to FRANCISCOGARDENING.COM, the project means that several tunnels and power plants will be built to develop the existing hydropower production. One purpose of the investment is, among other things, to remedy the problems with electricity supply that have recently caused a power outage in South Australia.
Health Minister resigns
After allegations of having made a trip for taxpayer money in 2015, when she also bought a house for her own use, Health Minister Sussan Ley is forced to resign. Her departure is a tough blow for Prime Minister Turnbull.
Indonesia stops military cooperation
The reason is that an Indonesian officer discovered educational material that he deemed abusive to his home country in connection with a military exchange program at an Australian military location. A few days later, Indonesia changed its mind and decided to suspend cooperation only in language teaching.