It became an independent country in 1971, the history of these islands starts from ancient times. Bahrain’s strategic location on the Persian Gulf has brought the rule and influence of the Sumerians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, and finally the Arabs, under which the island became Muslim.
From the time that Islam emerged in the 7th century to the early 16th century, the name Bahrain refers to the whole of Bahrain’s historical region stretching from Basra to that of the Strait of Hormuz along the coast of the Persian Gulf.. This is Iqlim al-Ba? Rayn, that is, the province of Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, and the Arab residents of the province are descendants of the Arab Bani Abd al-Qais tribe. This broader concept of Bahrain comprises three regions: Hajar (present-day Al-Hasa in Saudi Arabia), Al-Khatt (present-day Al-Qatif in Saudi Arabia) and Awal (present-day Bahrain). The name Awal was kept in use for probably eight centuries. Awal is derived from the name of an idol that used to be before Islam revered by the residents of the islands. The center of worship for the Awal is Muharraq.
According to localcollegeexplorer, Bahrain was one of the first to embrace Islam. Mohammed Bahrain ruled through one of his representatives, Al-Al-Ala’a Hadhrami. Bahrain embraced Islam in 629 (the seventh year of Hijra). During the time of Umar I, the famous companion of the Prophet Abu Hurayrah was the governor of Bahrain. Umar I also appointed Uthman bin Abi Al AAS as the governor of the area as well. Al Khamis Mosque, founded in 692, was one of the first mosques built in Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, in the era of Umayyad Caliph Umar II.
The spread of Islam did not affect Bahrain’s dependence on trade, prosperity and its continuation to depend on the markets in Mesopotamia. After Baghdad became the seat of the caliph in 750 and the main center of Islamic civilization, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain greatly benefited from the city’s increased demand for foreign goods, especially from China and South Asia.
Bahrain became a major center of knowledge for hundreds of years stretching from the early days of Islam in the 6th century to the 18th century. Bahraini philosophers were highly regarded, such as the 13th century mystic, Sheikh Al Bahrani Maitham (died 1299). (Sheikh Maitham’s mosque next to his grave can be visited on the outskirts of the capital, Manama, near the Mahooz district.)
Portuguese invasions and Persian influence
Portuguese expansion into the Indian Ocean in the early 16th century following Vasco da Gama’s voyages of exploration saw the Ottomans battle it out to the Persian Gulf coast. Reputation, the first Portuguese traveling to visit Bahrain was Duarte Barbosa in 1485.
In 1521, a Portuguese force led by Commander António Correia invaded Bahrain to take control of the wealth created by its pearl industry. The defeated King Muqrin was beheaded after Correia defeated his forces near present-day Karbabad and took control of the fortress “Qala’at Al-Bahrain”. The bleeding head of King Muqrin was later depicted on the coat of arms of Antonio Correia.
The Portuguese spoke out through force against the residents for eighty years, until they were expelled from the island in 1602, when it was an uprising provoked by the governor of the order for the execution of the island’s richest merchants. The uprising coincided with regional controversies between the Portuguese and rival European powers. The power vacuum that it caused almost immediately was filled by the Persian ruler, Shah Abbas I, who invaded the island and subsumed within the Safavid Empire.
Since the early years of the 21st century, the country became a strategic ally for the United States. In 2002 it was designated a very important non-NATO ally, in March 2008 it became the first Arab country to command joint naval exercises with the United States. In December of that same year, he sent a company of his special security forces to Afghanistan and is qualified as the leader of the Gulf Coordinating Council. 
The 14 of February of 2011  a group of young Shiites and Sunnis, and a strong presence of women took to the streets to demand a new constitution, the release of hundreds of men and boys Shiites arrested since August 2010 and put An end to civil rights abuses, this day was known as the Day of Fury. The demonstration was peaceful, but the police fired live fire. There were deaths and injuries, and thousands occupied the central square of Manama. In the early morning of February 17, the protesters gathered in the Central Plaza of Manama, while they slept, were attacked with batons, tear gas and pistols: the attack left 5 dead and more than 230 injured. 
On February 18, 2011, there was another confrontation between the protesters and the military of the regime, but this was bloodier, the official figures of the dead were hidden from public opinion and only the wounded were discussed by the police., a doctor who was at the demonstration narrated the confrontation in this way:
We decided to walk to the hospital because we knew there was a demonstration. Some of us carried branches as a sign of peace; we wanted to give them to the soldiers who were near the square and we shouted ‘peace, peace!’ There was no provocation, nothing against the government. Suddenly the soldiers began to shoot. One fired a machine gun from atop a personnel carrier. There were policemen, but they left when the soldiers started shooting at us. But you know, the people in Bahrain have changed. I didn’t want to run. He faced the bullets with his body. 
On February 19  thousands of protesters returned to retake Lulu Square (Manama’s central square) after the authorities ordered the withdrawal of tanks and riot police from the place, which was previously the scene of a bloody repression.
Exactly a month later, the police intervened again to prevent clashes between protesters and supporters of the monarchy, while the fifth US fleet was stationed in the country to pressure the rulers for political reform.