Brazil Breeding

Brazil Breeding and Fishing

The federal census of September 1, 1920 also addressed agriculture and, as we have said, the agricultural area surveyed was 175 million hectares, that is, one fifth of the entire territory of the state. This enormous surface was divided into 648,153 factories or farms of which more than 26,300 exceed the limit of 1000 hectares (they are more than 8000 in total, in the states of Goyaz and Minas Geraes, and more than 4000, in total, in those of Matto Grosso and S. Paolo), and about 160,000 possess an area that varies between 100 and 1000 ha.

According to usprivateschoolsfinder, the minimum number of farms (regardless of the federal district and the Acre territory) is recorded in the states of Amazonas (4496 farms of which just over 3000 with an area of ​​less than 100 ha.) And Matto Grosso (3484 farms of which just 600 with an area of ​​less than 100 ha., and 2000 with more than 1000 ha.) Only the 27th part of the farms is leased; almost all (more than 577,000) are owned by the owners; less than 50,000 are headed by directors.

The owners are overwhelmingly Brazilians (546,000, regardless of the 950 properties belonging to autarkic entities), while the foreign owners do not reach 80,000. Among these, Italians predominate by far (just under half): followed by Portuguese, Germans, Poles, Spaniards, Russians (excluding Ukrainians), Austrians, Uruguayans and Japanese (more than 1150: Chinese owners are 8). The Italians are in first place for the value of properties (more than 450 million contos) and in second place for area (about 2,750,000 ha, while the Portuguese own 3,630,000 ha.), But in the 20th place for average area of ​​farm, which reaches the value of just 76 ha., while in the 34 farms owned by Peruvians the average area exceeds 8400 ha., 4150 in the 87 owned by Americans (United States of North America), the 1000 and 450 ha. respectively, in the 110 and 335 farms owned by the English and French. The Brazilians are responsible for 83% of the area and 780% of the value; to foreigners 6% of the area and 11% of the value.

The Italians own 1.6% of the area surveyed, and almost 4.5% of the value: in the latter respect they are, as has already been said, in first place among foreigners. The Portuguese follow with 2.5%, and with about 0.7% the Spaniards, Uruguayans and Germans.

Breeding. – The increase in the production of meat suitable for export during the war (it is estimated that between 1915 and 1918 the state of St. Paul doubled the wealth of its livestock) drew general attention to the possibility of not a few Brazilian states in the south and in the interior to derive significant income from livestock farming when, in the not too distant future, the speed of transport will somehow obviate the obstacles placed in the way of the enormous distances between some production areas and the sea. The varieties of grasses and legumes, characteristic of not a few areas of the plateau, and some favorable climatic conditions seem to ensure a future for the

According to the federal census of 1920 the consistency and distribution of the livestock is that recorded in the table on p. 733

Cattle by far occupy the first place, which are more numerous in southern Brazil and in the states of the central plateau, while they are scarce in the north-eastern states and especially in the Amazon basin. Of the cattle the most valuable qualities are: the caracú with fine and short hair, with a long and thin tail, with large and fleshy hips, which we find particularly represented in Goyaz, where the pedreiro type is also widespread ; the Junqueiro or franqueiro in the state of Minas (approximately 7 million and one-third); the pantaneiro or cuyabano in the Matto Grosso (2,830,000 head); the cryoule in various states, including in Rio Grande do Sul, where there is the maximum figure of 8 and a half million heads, in Bahia and in San Paolo.

Equine cattle, also of Iberian origin, were initially imported from the Cape Verde islands; but after 1820, quite a few breeding animals were imported from various Western European countries, including some pure Arab blood.

In 1920, 5 and a quarter million heads were counted; of which about half in Rio Grande do Sul (1,406,809) and Minas Geraes (1 145,568). The total number of donkeys and mules did not reach two million heads (1,865,259) and of these a third were counted in the four southern states, a fifth in Minas Geraes (384,862) which is most supplied, and a fourth in the states north-east.

Sheep farming takes place in favorable conditions in the southern states and also in some higher areas of central Brazil, however it cannot be considered that it has reached all the development it could have. Sheep are also more numerous on the southern plateau and especially in Rio Grande do Sul which alone owns four and a half million heads out of a total of almost 8 million, while the Amazonian states and the internal ones of Goyaz and of Matto Grosso. Instead of goats, which in 1920 were just over five million, the largest percentage belongs to the semi-arid states of the north-eastern cusp, from Maranhão to Sergipe with 57.4 per cent, while the richest state is that of Bahia with 1,400. .000 garments.

The pig herd is partly of Iberian origin, partly Indochinese: the Asian varieties are given the name of “Macao” in Brazil. This cattle is the most numerous after the bovine one: it is widespread especially in the southern states and in Minas Geraes which together provide 77.5% of the total figure which rose in 1920 to 16 million head: Minas Geraes, Rio Grande do Sul and San Paolo are, in descending order, the strongest producers, while in proportion to the surface the least supplied is Amazonas (35,270 head).

As for the large horned cattle, the three states of São Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul and Minas Geraes together possess more than 18 million head, or 54% of the national heritage. And since these three states also own 57% of horses, 44% of donkeys and mules, and, as we have said, raise the largest number of sheep and pigs, it is evident that this non-negligible source of wealth contributes to increasing the economic importance of the southern plateau.

Fishing. – Particularly rich is the ichthyofauna of the Amazon River which has a characteristic species: the pirarucú (Arapaima gigas) which can weigh up to 100 kg and can be said to be fundamental for the feeding of the riparian populations. This is how the tucunaré (Cichla ocellaris), over half a meter long, can support the comparison with the Salmon. The harmless herbivorous peixe boi or oxfish (Manatus australis) and the dangerous electric gymnote (Electrophorus or Gymnotus electricusporaqué of the natives). Sea fishing is relatively minor. However, remember the richness of molluscs (just under 600 species throughout Brazil), and the importance of some crustaceans such as the common crab (Ucides cordatus) which prefers swampy soils, the lobster, the small shrimp (Scyllarides aequinoctialis) and the large shrimp or santola (Stenocinops polyacanta).

Steam fishing with bottom nets dates back to 1903; and only since then has research begun on plankton, and on the relatively high mortality in fish in the bay of Rio de Janeiro.

Brazil Breeding

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