Chile is one of the most interesting countries in the world. Thousands of years of history, beautiful landscapes, majestic mountains and pristine mountainous areas, an amazing variety of natural complexes, a colorful local population and a rapidly developing economy – these are the main arguments when choosing this country as an object of visit. The most popular sights of Chile are Lake Chungara, Parinacota volcano, Atacama desert, El Tatio geysers, Lake Miscanti, granite “towers” of Torres del Paine, archaeological sites of Copaquilla and Sapahuira, the mysterious Easter Island, and Patagonia – the southernmost region of the American continent, are well known far beyond the borders of the country.
- Chile is the southernmost country in the world.
- The Atacama Desert is one of the driest places on earth.
- Volcano Walyatiri (6 064 m) is the highest active volcano on the planet.
- Lauka National Park is the highest forest in the world.
- Chilean Patagonia is considered the cleanest place on the planet.
- Easter Island is the most remote island in the world from inhabited places.
- Cerro Mirador (8 km from Punta Arenas) is considered the only ski resort in the world located on the ocean.
- Pumalin Park (Chiloe Island) is the largest private reserve on the planet.
State in the southwestern part of South America. According to thesciencetutor, the territory of Chile is stretched in a narrow strip along the coast of the Pacific Ocean (the country is about 4329 km long and about 170 km wide). The country borders Peru in the north, Bolivia in the northeast, Argentina in the east, and is separated from Antarctica in the south by the Drake Passage.
The country includes the Easter Islands (Rapa Nui, 3,700 km west of the coast of the country), Juan Fernandez (700 km west), a vast archipelago and part of the island of Tierra del Fuego in the southern part of the country, as well as many smaller islands. The total area of the country is 756.9 thousand square meters. km.
The territory of the country is a narrow strip of the coastal plain, bounded from the east by the powerful ranges of the Andes, between which lies the Longitudinal (Central) Valley. The Main Cordillera and the Coastal Cordillera of the Andes stretch along the entire country, forming numerous ridges interspersed with small elevated plateaus and depressions. The highest point of the country is Mount Ojos del Salado (6880 m).
The climate of the country is extremely diverse, which is explained by its large extent from north to south, the abundance of powerful coastal currents and the influence of the Andes mountain system.
In the north of the country, a tropical desert type of climate prevails. The average monthly temperatures range here from +12 C in winter (May-August) to +22 C in summer (December-March) with a maximum in the region of +38 C. Precipitation does not exceed 50 mm per year, and in some areas of the Atacama it does not rain at all.
The middle part of the country is dominated by a temperate oceanic type of climate. The temperature here ranges from +3-12 in winter to +22 C in summer. At the same time, precipitation falls from 100 to 800 mm per year, mainly in winter. The high-mountainous regions of the country differ from the coastal plain in lower temperatures (in some areas, even in summer it does not exceed +3 C, in winter it drops to -27 C) and an insignificant amount of precipitation.
In the zone of the Strait of Magellan and on the island of Tierra del Fuego, the climate is polar, the temperature in winter ranges from -16 to -4, in summer it does not exceed +18 C.
Spanish (“castellano”). English, German and ethnic group languages are also used.
About 15.8 million people, mostly Chileans (“Chileno”, a nation formed as a result of a mixture of Indian peoples and immigrants from Europe, mainly from Spain). There are also a small number of Indian tribes (many of them almost assimilated) and people from other countries. A small group of Araucan Indians lives mainly in the south of the country, between the cities of Concepción and Puerto Montt, the Aymara Indians live in the far north of the country. A special group is also made up of the population of Easter Island – the Rapanui, belonging to the Melanesian-Polynesian group (at present, no more than 1 thousand people remain). In the southern part of Chile and on the islands, one can meet compactly living descendants of immigrants from Europe – Germans, French, Basques, Irish, Croats, Russians, etc.
Republic. The country is in transition from military dictatorship to democracy. The head of state and government is the president, elected by universal direct and secret suffrage for a single term of 6 years.
Catholics – about 80%, Protestants – 13%, as well as adherents of other faiths. The church in Chile is separate from the state, but enjoys great respect and influence on the political and social life of the country.