Finno-Ugric languages, Finno-Ugric languages, Finno -Ugric languages. According to iamhigher, the Finno-Ugric languages, together with Samoyed, form the Uralic language family (Uralic languages). They are spoken by around 25 million people in partly widely scattered settlement areas from central Scandinavia to the Ob in Siberia as well as in Hungary. The location and extent of the original home of the peoples belonging to the Finno-Ugric language area are controversial; After applying paleontological methods to linguistics, the Urals and Kama regions emerged as their original home.
|Structure of the Finno-Ugric languages|
|Finnish in the strict sense|
|Udmurt table (Votyak)|
|Khanty (East Yak)|
Classification: The Finno-Ugric languages are divided into a Finnish-Permian and a Ugric branch. The relationships between the individual languages show that their geographical location to one another since the disintegration of the Finno-Ugric basic language in the 3rd millennium BC. Has remained essentially the same. The common basic vocabulary of around 1,000 words (mainly from the field of everyday life as well as from fishing and hunting) was heavily redesigned through numerous loanwords from different origins and contributed to the differentiation of the individual languages.
Characteristics: The Finno-Ugric languages belong to the agglutinating type (agglutinating languages). Other characteristic traits are vowel harmony (now partially gone), aversion to consonant combinations, stress on the first syllable, generally two-syllable root word stems, lack of grammatical gender, in most languages also of the article; Grammatical relationships and the relationship of ownership and belonging are denoted by suffixes. The flexion is very different; the number of cases varies between three and eighteen; Spatial relationships are expressed in a much more sophisticated way than grammatical ones. The conjugation was only fully developed in a single language, the forms are partly based on nominal word stems. Mordovian and Ugric can refer to the object in a special conjugation. Constructions with inflected verbal nouns are often used according to clauses.
Formerly inhabited by the Lapps, and then by the Finns, around 1157 Finland was invaded by the Swedish king Erik IX the Saint who tried to spread Christianity there. The Swedish invasion aroused immediate Russian hostility and only in 1323 Sweden and Russia defined their borders with the Treaty of Nöteborg. In the sec. XVI two facts had a great weight in Finnish life: the decision of the bishop of Åbo, Mikael Agricola, to celebrate Mass in Finnish, favoring the knowledge of sacred books and thus stimulating literature, and the spread of Protestantism, which had the start with Gustavo Vaga. In 1581 Finland, erected as a Grand Duchy, was long disputed between Sweden, Poland, Russia and Denmark; in 1617 Russia and Sweden concluded the Peace of Stolbovo for which Russia ceded part of the territories. Swedish domination was particularly heavy under Gustavo II Adolfo (1611-32), who also exerted strong pressure on Finnish cultural circles so that the Swedish language became the predominant language. Charles XI (1660-97), on the other hand, approved the formation of a national agrarian bourgeoisie. After the Russian invasion of the early century. XVIII, with the Peace of Nystad (1721) and with the Peace of Åbo (1743) the eastern territories of Finland passed to Russia and on September 17, 1809, with the Peace of Hamina, the annexation was completed. The reigns of Alexander I and Nicholas I they were characterized by an authoritarian policy towards Finland and an attempt to substitute Russian language, culture and customs for Finnish and Swedish ones. In 1863 Alexander II granted the reconvocation of the Finnish Diet: his successor, Alexander III, however, found himself having to face the Pan-Slavist and autonomist movements that the reconvocation of the Diet had aroused. On February 15, 1899, Nicholas II revoked the Diet; later also the Finnish army (1901) and the Constitution (1903) were abolished.
In 1904 the nationalists killed the leaders of the reaction in an attack for which on 20 July 1906 Nicholas II had to renounce his repressive policy and convene an extraordinary Diet which, the following year, approved the electoral reform, introducing the proportional system and suffrage. universal. In the elections of March 1907, the Social Democratic Party obtained 40% of the votes. In 1910, for fear of the spread of separatist ideas and the sharpening of social demands, the Diet was dissolved again and at the outbreak of the First World War (1914) Russia completely abolished Finnish autonomy and announced the annexation of Finland. However, the Russian Revolution was a strong stimulus for the separatist movements and on 6 December 1917 the Diet proclaimed the independent Republic of Finland. The presence within the country of a strong and organized Marxist party caused a growing tension that culminated in the civil war of the winter of 1918: the Bolsheviks were bitterly repressed by the white forces of General Mannerheim, assisted by a military corps of the German general Rüdiger von der Goltz. In 1919, the first President of the Republic, KJ Ståhlberg, was elected.