Germany lies between latitude 47 ° 10 ‘and 55 ° 17’ and therefore in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere. But more than from the mathematical geographic position, its climate depends on the natural one, with respect to the sea and the prevailing winds. Just as the barrier of the Alps separates peoples and states, it is also an energetic climatic divider, as it removes the countries beyond the main watershed from the direct influence of the Mediterranean: once the watershed for one of the Alpine passes has been overcome, whoever comes from Italy in a few hours is found in a completely different climate, intermediate between the continental type of the Sarmatic lowland and the maritime one of Western Europe.
Since France, thanks to its relief, is open to the action of the winds that blow from the Atlantic Ocean, from this the influences arrive to Germany which, however attenuated, penetrate quite deep inside, because the relief of Germany itself, mainly arranged in E.-O. and not high, it does not work as a very strong screen. On the other hand, no barrier separates Germany from Eastern Europe. For these reasons, its climate results from the alternation and contrast of the fairly strong influences of the Atlantic and the seas that depend on it and those of the Eurasian continent, and Germany climatically constitutes a transition zone between Western Europe and the ‘Oriental. The influence of the sea is stronger in the western part, weaker in the east, the the reverse is of the action of the continent; and while that of the sea makes itself felt at a considerable distance from the coasts, the latter in turn also undergo the influence of continentality. For all these reasons, Germany is distinct from the inconstancy of weather conditions. In winter, the cold, dense air looms over NE Asia. there it determines high pressures that extend towards the west. On the other hand, a depression usually dominates the North Atlantic, which has its lowest point in Iceland. Germany during the winter is subject to these two opposite conditions: SW winds. they mitigate the effects of the distance from the sea and the internal situation, sometimes rather cold east winds blow. In the western part, the tempering action of the Atlantic is evident. In January, the isotherms are directed from S. to N .: the 0 ° one crosses the Danube east of Ulm, makes an elbow to the west in the Main basin, passes through the Vogelsberg and west of the Harz, to reach the Baltic coast between Lübeck and Rostock. Having made the necessary reduction to sea level, the whole territory of middle Europe to the east of this line has an average temperature below 0 °, that to the west a higher temperature. For these conditions, West Germany, and particularly that of the NW, is distinguished by a mild, oceanic winter; in the east, winter is cold, continental. In the Rhine province the average temperature is 2 °, in East Prussia – 4 °: the difference between the two extreme provinces is therefore 6 °. On the contrary, in the summer the interior of the Eurasia warms up strongly, in comparison with the sea; the air expands and therefore fresh NW currents blow from the Atlantic. and O. on middle Europe and mitigate the effects of warming. The July isotherms do not differ much from the parallels, they run from OSO. to ENE. That of 20 °, from Metz goes towards the Taunus, then abruptly turns S. towards Karlsruhe, enters Alsace and then turns towards Stuttgart, and passing S. from Nuremberg goes to Cheb in Bohemia; towards the east it reaches higher latitudes. What is to say that the NO. Germany, well exposed to the influence of the sea, then has relatively lower temperatures than that of SE. higher. However, the differences are not very strong: in fact on the North Sea coast the average in July is 16 °, in southern Germany 21 °.
The isotherms, built on the reduced temperatures at sea level (at the rate of 0.50 every 100 m., The average value of the decrease in temperature with height), can only serve to give an idea of the different behavior of the earth and of the sea. If we consider the temperatures actually observed in the individual stations, we can evaluate the effects of the orographic conditions, which are shown to have a greater moment than latitude. The mountain masses determine a diversity of heating, the arrangement and height of the relief can prevent or favor the arrival of hot or cold currents and the slopes, depending on the exposure, are more or less affected by the effect of solar radiation.
Since then the soil of Germany, higher in the S., declines towards the N., the greater latitude of the northern part is compensated by its lower height above the sea, and the effects of the lower latitude of the southern part are attenuated by its greater height. The effects of the distance from the ocean are evident in the fact that in eastern Germany the winter is very cold even in the NE. (the Baltic Sea freezes in winter and then delays spring, because the thaw removes heat). The average January temperature in Marggrabowa (East Prussia), at 160 msm, is – 4 °, 9; the average of the minimums observed in the same month is – 24 °, 7, that is the lowest of the whole German territory, except the Zugspitze (2964 m., extreme – 26 °, 6). The lowest temperature observed in Marggrabowa (in January 1893) was – 36 °, 4.
Rather high summer temperatures are observed in the eastern part of the so-called Lowland and also in the low-lying areas of middle and SW Germany, where winter lows are also quite low. On cold and clear winter days, the cooled and dense air easily stagnates, while in the upper parts the amount of sunshine raises the temperature. On the other hand, the intermontane lowlands (Thuringia, Upper Rhine Plain) are subject to strong warming in summer.
As for the differences in temperature between the seasons, it can be observed that they remain within discrete limits: however, they increase quite rapidly towards the E., so much so that the eastern limit of the beech, characteristic of Western Europe and which requires a period of five months with temperatures above 0 °, it runs between the Frisches Haff and the Carpazî, approximately along the line that can be used as a limit between central and eastern Europe.
The influence of proximity or distance from the sea can also be seen in the distribution of atmospheric humidity: in fact, both the absolute and relative humidity averages obtained from the data of the various stations increase from E. to W. The relative humidity it also increases towards N. It is strong in the mountains, where, due to the low temperature, the absolute humidity is small. In the distribution of cloud cover a corresponding trend is found: the highest annual average is given by the coastal countries of the North Sea (in some parts more than 70%). Towards the south and east the cloudiness decreases (up to about 10%). Clouds gather on the mountains, especially on the west-facing slopes. On the other hand, in the valleys and basins of middle Germany, cloud cover is scarce and local fogs are frequent. On the other hand, very extensive fogs, caused by the general atmospheric situation, are rare. Very frequent are the fogs in the western part of Germany and in the coastal countries. Hamburg has an annual average of 130 foggy days, of which 52 in winter, 45 in autumn, 22 in spring and 10 in summer, Kassel has an average of 123 foggy days per year, with the anticipation of autumn (38).
As for atmospheric precipitation, the general average for Germany is, according to Germany Hellmann, 690 mm. In northern Germany it is 640, for southern it is 830 mm. But these figures say too little. The annual quantitative distribution must be considered. The influence of the ocean is considerable NW. where it appears with a more covered sky, the slow, long, falling rains over large areas in all seasons, with the maximum in autumn. In all the rest of Germany, only in the mountains are there comparable conditions: on the other hand, the lowlands are rather arid and the most abundant rains fall there in the form of showers.
Rain heights generally decrease from NW. towards SE, they mostly exceed 700 mm. to the west and down to 400 to the east; however the shapes of the land have a great influence on rainfall. In the lowlands they rarely exceed 700 mm. per year (in Schleswig over 800) and in basins and valleys they do not reach 500 mm. On the mountains, on the other hand, they exceed 1000 mm. and since the humid winds come mainly from the west, the precipitations fall abundantly on the slopes facing west (they are scarce on those exposed to the east) and are greater in the west relief than on the east ones. On the Vosges, 2600 mm fall on average. per year, on the Black Forest 2200 mm., on the Bohemian Forest 1800 mm., on the Giant Mountains 1600. The Brocken (Harz), well exposed on the lowland to condense humidity, collects 1640 mm. nodded. Regarding the distribution of precipitation throughout the year, it can be observed that they are distributed fairly evenly in all seasons. However, there is an annual period in quantity and frequency. The quantity is much greater in summer than in other seasons. The maxim is usually given in July; in the Alsatian-Badese plain in June, on the North Sea coast and in East Prussia in August or October. The lowest monthly averages correspond to the coldest months (in the east in February, in the west the minimum can also be had in April). The quantity is much greater in summer than in other seasons. The maxim is usually given in July; in the Alsatian-Badese plain in June, on the North Sea coast and in East Prussia in August or October. The lowest monthly averages correspond to the coldest months (in the east in February, in the west the minimum can also be had in April). The quantity is much greater in summer than in other seasons. The maxim is usually given in July; in the Alsatian-Badese plain in June, on the North Sea coast and in East Prussia in August or October. The lowest monthly averages correspond to the coldest months (in the east in February, in the west the minimum can also be had in April).
According to localcollegeexplorer, the rains are mainly the consequence of moving barometric minimums, which come from the North Atlantic and move eastwards according to the prevailing winds and have a great importance in determining the weather and the average atmospheric state, because rainfall depends on it., wind direction and temperature.
From what has been explained so far, it is possible to draw important conclusions. By examining the normals of the climatic elements obtained from the data collected in the individual stations, in the various parts of Germany there are differences in climate which allow to divide Germany itself into eight climatic regions. The Wegener distinguishes an eastern climatic province, where the winter is cold, the summer is hot and the rains are summer, and limits it with a sinuous line that goes from Kolberg towards the mouth of the Spree. The Baltic climatic region or province is the one that is under the direct influence of the sea of the same name, and has ever greater continentality towards the E.: the rains fall in late summer, autumn is hot, summer cool. The territory that is south of this region up to 51 ° N. and, to the west, up to the 11th meridian, it forms the central climatic region, an area of transition from the maritime to the internal climate. The lowland of NO. it forms the oceanic province of the Wegener, because it is more directly exposed to the temperatory influence of the Atlantic: and therefore has mild winters and cool summers. Its limit towards S. can be conducted between Hanover and Osnabrück. To the S. of this limit, between the Rhine and the Main, lies the province called Hercian by the Wegener, mountainous, where atmospheric precipitations are abundant and strong local differences are found. The Rhine province, which has mild winters and cool summers in N., and in S. relatively mild winters and hot summers, includes the Badese plain (Altorenana), most of the Neckar drainage basin and the middle and lower part of that of the Main. The Swabian-Bavarian climatic region occupies the rest of southern Germany: it resembles the Ercinian, but is distinguished by a greater degree of continentality. In the German Alps, between Lake Constance and Salzach, the climate has alpine characteristics and the Wegener distinguishes it as an alpine province.
Thus it came about that the number of cities with over 100,000 residents from 1871 to 1925 became five times greater and the number of city dwellers 8 times greater.
The current decrease in the population (see § 2) is partly due to the enormous losses suffered in the war by the German army (2,036,000 fighters who fell, missing or died as a result of injuries or illnesses) and the increase in mortality in the war period, partly due to territorial losses (70,579 sq. km. with 6.5 million residents, that is almost a tenth of the population that had the empire in 1914).
As for the current movement, we will observe that from the decade of 1871-1880 onwards, the number of children has decreased relatively (from 40.7 per 1000 residents it decreased to 22.5 in the period 1920-24), but mortality has also been decreasing. (from 28.8 to 15.2 per 1000); the surplus of births over deaths from 11.9 in the decade 1871-80, had risen to 14.3 in the decade 1901-1910, the average of the following decade 1911-1919 plummeted to 4.7, because in the war years (1915 -18) the number of deaths was much greater than that of births, not only due to war losses, but also due to poor food conditions.