Haiti State Overview

Haiti State Overview

Government and politics

According to abbreviationfinder, Haiti is a presidential republic with a popularly elected president and a National Assembly. The current constitution was introduced in 1987 and is based on the constitutions of the United States and France. After being suspended for some years, it was completely reinstated in 1994.

The 29 of February of 2004, a coup d’undercover state, promoted by the United States culminated in the alleged resignation of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide. In 2006, Aristide’s former ally, René Préval, was reelected.

Joseph Michel Martelly was elected President of the Republic of Haiti in elections held in November of 2010. He took office on May 14, 2011.

Political-administrative organization

Haiti is divided into 10 departments (subdivisions) and 42 communes.


  • Artibonite
  • Center
  • Grand’Anse
  • Nippes
  • North
  • Northeast
  • Northwest
  • West
  • South
  • Southeast


  • L’Acul-du-Nord
  • L’Anse-à-Veau
  • Anse d’Hainault
  • Here n
  • L’Arcahaie
  • Bainet
  • Baradères
  • Belle-anse
  • Borgne
  • Le Cap-Haïtien
  • Les Cayes
  • Near La Source
  • Les Chardonnières
  • Corail
  • Les Côteaux
  • Croix-des-Bouquets
  • Dessalines
  • Fort-Liberté
  • Les Gonaïves
  • Grande-Rivière du Nord
  • Gros-Morne
  • Swell
  • Jacmel
  • Jérémie
  • The Gonâve
  • Lascahobas
  • Léogâne
  • I Limbé
  • Marmelade
  • Miragoâne
  • Mirebalais
  • Môle Saint-Nicolas
  • Ouanaminthe
  • Plaisance
  • Port-au-Prince
  • Port-de-Paix
  • Port-Salut
  • Saint-Louis du Nord
  • Saint-Marc
  • Saint-Raphaël
  • Le Trou-du-Nord
  • Vallières


Main article: Geography of Haiti.

Haiti occupies the western third of the island of Hispaniola and includes some nearby islands and small cays such as Gronave and La Tortuga. Its territory also includes the island of Gonâve, the island of Tortuga, the archipelago of the Cayemites islands and the island of Vaches, as well as various other islets in its territorial waters. The uninhabited island of La Navasse (in Spanish Navaza Island) is claimed by Haiti before the United States administration.

The total area reaches 27,750 km². The part of Haiti corresponding to the island of Hispaniola is made up mainly of rugged mountains with small plains and coastal valleys. The largest city is the capital Port-au-Prince with 2 million residents, followed by Cap Haitien, with 600,000. The climate of Haiti is tropical. The rainiest season runs from April to June and October to November, and the country is frequently hit by tropical storms and cyclones.


Haiti’s climate is tropical. The rainiest season runs from April to June and October to November, and the country is frequently hit by tropical storms and cyclones. The climate is tropical on the coasts and cold in the mountains. The heat decreases thanks to the sea breezes.


Haiti is the least developed economy for a country in the Western Hemisphere. Social and economic indicators place Haiti in descending positions behind other low-income developing countries (particularly in the hemisphere) since the 1980s. Haiti is in position 150 out of 175 countries on the UN Human Development Index..

Approximately 80% of the population lives in poverty and almost 70% of Haitians depend on agriculture, which consists mainly of small-scale subsistence agriculture and employs about two-thirds of the economically active population. Failure to reach agreements with international sponsors has prevented Haiti from obtaining assistance for a development budget and programs.


Main article: Demography of Haiti .

97.5% of the Haitian population is black and the remaining 2.5% is white (European or descendant). Although Haiti averages about 270 people per square kilometer, its population is most heavily concentrated in urban areas, coastal plains, and valleys.

The French is one of two official languages, but is spoken by only 10% of the population. Almost all Haitians speak Kreyòl (Creole, Haitian Creole), the other official language of the country. The English is spoken among the young and in the commercial sector. The Spanish is spoken mainly in the areas bordering the Dominican Republic. See population of Haiti.

The Catholicism Roman is the religion official, which is professed by the majority. Some have converted to Protestantism. Many Haitians also practice voodoo traditions, without any conflict with their Christian faith. Life expectancy is 53 years. The average number of children per woman is 4.94 (the highest rate in America). Only 53% of the population is literate. It is estimated that 5.6% of the population is infected with HIV / AIDS.


Main article: Traditions and customs of Haiti.

Haiti has a long and legendary history, therefore it preserves a very rich culture. Haitian culture is a mix of French, African, and Spanish.


The music of Haiti is mostly influenced by European colonial ties and African migration (through slavery). In the case of European colonization, the musical influence has come mainly from France, however Haitian music has a significant Spanish influence, by its neighbors the Dominican Republic and Cuba, whose music in Spanish has contributed to create other musical genres in Haiti. Naif painting has a wide development and recognition, which is a world reference.

Compás (in French) and Kompas (in Haitian Creole) is a complex music, originating from African rhythms and European ballroom dancing, stocked with the bourgeois culture of Haiti. Haiti did not have any registered music until 1937, when the Jazz Guignard was registered non-profit. One of the most popular Haitian artists is Wyclef Jean, of hip hop style.

Architectural heritage

The most famous monuments in Haiti are the Sans Souci Palace and the La Ferriere Citadel, inscribed as World Heritage Sites in 1982. Located north of Massif de la Hotte, in one of Haiti’s National Parks, the structure dates from the early 19th century. The building was one of the first to be built after Haitian independence from France. Alejo Carpentier wrote about them in the prego to his novel The kingdom of this world, founder of the American Wonderful Real.

Jacmel, the colonial city that was in the process of becoming another World Heritage Site, was seriously damaged as a result of the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

Haiti State Overview

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