History of Algeria
In the 12th century BC. Phoenician settlements arose on the territory of Algeria, in the 3rd century BC. BC. state of Numidia. Algeria was under the rule of Rome (42-429 AD), Vandals (430-534), Byzantines. The Arabs conquered North Africa in the 7th century. They spread Islam, Arabic culture, language. In the 16th century Algeria became part of the Ottoman Empire. In 1830, French troops invaded its territory. The Algerian tribes resisted them. Led by the national hero Emir Abd al-Qadir, they created their own state in the west of the country, which lasted until 1847. The French colonization of Algeria lasted 132 years. Algeria gained political independence after eight years of bloody struggle (1954–62). It was led by the National Liberation Front (FLN), which absorbed all the nationalist parties and organizations of the country.
May 18, 1962 in Evian between Algeria and France were signed agreements on a ceasefire and self-determination of Algeria. In a referendum in July 1962, 99% of Algerians voted for independence; on July 5, 1962, Algeria became an independent state. The elected National Constituent Assembly proclaimed the creation of the Algerian People’s Democratic Republic (PDR). The first government was headed by one of the leaders of the national liberation struggle, Ahmed Ben Bella.
During the tenure of Ben Bella (1962–65), a program for the development of the country on socialist principles was adopted and a one-party system was approved with the ruling party, the FNO.
On June 19, 1965, as a result of a coup d’état, power passed to the Revolutionary Council, headed by Colonel Houari Boumedienne (1965–78). The key element of his policy was the industrial, agrarian and cultural revolutions, which were reflected in the programmatic and ideological document “National Charter. 1976″.
After the death of Boumedienne, Colonel Chadli Bendjedid (1979-91) was elected president. In 1986, he amended the “National Charter”, increasing the emphasis on Arab and Muslim values in the ideological platform of Algeria. This happened against the backdrop of a brewing socio-economic crisis and the growth of religious-nationalist sentiments. In 1989, a law on a multi-party system was adopted. An influential party was the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS), which united Muslim extremists seeking to create an Islamic state in Algeria. The FIS and other Islamist parties won majorities in local elections (1990) and in the first round of parliamentary elections (1991), threatening to seize power. An acute political crisis led to the resignation of President Bendjedid (January 1992),
To govern the country, a collegial body was established – the Supreme State Council (SSC), which received all the prerogatives of the president for 2 years. It was headed by M. Boudiaf, one of the leaders of the national liberation struggle, and after his death in June 1992, war veteran A. Kafi. The activities of the VGS took place in the conditions of a tough confrontation between the special services and Muslim extremists. On March 4, 1992, the VGS banned the activities of the FIS, which responded to the ban with bloody terror throughout the country.
In January 1994, after the expiration of the powers of the VGS, the General National Conference elected General Lamin Zeroual as President of Algeria for a transitional period (1994-96). In November 1995, his legitimacy in this post was confirmed by a general, alternative election. Zerual recreated all institutions of state power and kept the country from sliding into civil war. In September 1998 Zeroual resigned. In April 1999, Abdelaziz Bouteflika, the oldest politician and participant in the national liberation struggle, was elected president of Algeria. The central direction of his policy is the achievement of civil accord in the country.
Science and culture of Algeria
According to top-engineering-schools, the right to education and compulsory education of children aged 6-12 is guaranteed by the Constitution. In con. 1990s 86% of children were enrolled in school education: 4.7 million were enrolled in primary school (grades 1-6), 2.6 million were enrolled in secondary schools (grades 7-9). 347.5 thousand students studied at universities.
The largest universities in the country: the capital’s university, which unites 14 institutes, the universities of Oran (19 institutes) and Constantine (20 institutes). There is a University of Science and Technology (11 institutes).
Universities and research centers conduct research in the fields of the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, economics, and medicine. The National Council for Science and Technology was established, headed by the Prime Minister.
There are university and municipal libraries. The largest book depository is the National Library (more than 1 million books). Daily newspapers and weeklies are published in Arabic and French. Information agency – “Algeri Press Service” (APS). The entire territory is covered by television and radio broadcasting.
Algerian literature exists in Arabic and French. It is represented by prose, poetry, dramaturgy. The largest French-speaking writers: Mohammed Dib, Malek Haddad, Kateb Yassin, Jean Amrush, Bashir Haj Ali, Jean Seneca.
Major Arabic prose writers of the 20th century. — A.R. Huhu, A. Benheduga, T. Wattar, A. Rkibi, B. Dudu, H. Celali. Revolutionary-patriotic themes prevail in the light of contemporary events, the problems of moral education, and the construction of a new society.
The founder of the first national theater Mustafa Kateb.
Fine art is represented by a variety of genres and types of painting: from miniature, reviving medieval Arab traditions, to monumental, avant-garde. Ali Khoja and Abderakhman Shauan work in a realistic manner, Mustafa Nejai in an avant-garde style, and Aiha Haddad in a folk style. In 1963, the National Union of Fine Arts Workers was established.
In Algeria, monuments of ancient art and architecture have been preserved: rock paintings dating back to the Neolithic, the ruins of cities from the time of Roman rule: Timgad, Tebessa, Tipasa, Jemila. The old district of the Kasbah is preserved in the capital – as a complete architectural ensemble of the 16th century.