The American-British military action in Iraq (3rd Gulf War) initiated on March 20, 2003 led to the occupation of the country (Baghdad was taken on April 9, 2003) and the overthrow of the Ba’ath regime and Saddam Husain , who initially fled succeeded. The collapse of public order resulted in looting (including in the capital’s National Museum). During the conception of the post-war order in Iraq, a controversy arose about the nature and extent of the involvement of the UN. The US government initially entrusted the US ex-general Jay M. Garner (* 1938) with the management of an interim administration (CPA) until elections were held, and from May 2003 onwards the former US diplomat L. Paul Bremer (* 1941). After the official end of the main fighting on May 1, 2003, control of the country, which was divided into several military zones (including an American, a British and a Polish sector), was sought. On May 10, 2003, the Shiite leader Mohammed Bakr al-Hakim returned returned to Iraq from exile in Iran (murdered in Nedjef in August 2003). On May 11, 2003, the coalition forces declared the Ba’ath Party to be dissolved. With the adoption of UN Resolution 1483 on May 22, 2003, the longstanding trade sanctions against Iraq were largely lifted, the USA and Great Britain recognized as occupying powers and their power of disposal over Iraqi oil production, and the UN was granted an important role in the reconstruction of the country (Appointment a special envoy for Iraq). In view of the persistently critical supply and security situation in the country, displeasure against the occupying powers spread among the population. Numerous guerrilla-like attacks by a. American soldiers who suffered higher losses in post-war operations than during actual combat operations, A high level of crime and the high number of attacks, including many victims among the local population, revealed the unstable situation; In addition to the members of the resistance who were recruited from supporters of the previous regime, Islamist terrorists infiltrating from abroad increasingly played a role.
The occupation authorities looked for former high regime officials through the manhunt (including the killing of the sons Saddam Husains, Uday [* 1964] and Kusay [* 1966],in a firefight with American soldiers on July 22, 2003) and to stabilize the situation in the country by gradually building up Iraqi security forces and administrative organs. In July 2003 an Iraqi government council (IGC) was constituted, which in September 2003 appointed an Iraqi interim government. The new Iraq resolution 1511 drafted by the USA and finally adopted by the UN Security Council on October 16, 2003 placed the occupation forces under a UN mandate while retaining American leadership; she also called on other states to send military for multinational troops into the country and to participate in the reconstruction. One on 23/24 10. The international “Iraq donor conference” held in Madrid in 2003 generated financial aid commitments of US $ 33 billion (with US $ 20.3 billion). US- $ main share from the USA). On November 3, 2003, the US Senate approved US $ 87.5 billion for military operations and reconstruction in Iraq and Afghanistan. December 2003 saw the establishment of a special tribunal to punish crimes under the rule Saddam Husain decided. After months of manhunt, on December 13, 2003 the exdictator, who was last in hiding near Tikrit, was arrested. On March 8, 2004, the government council passed an interim constitution (TAL), the stabilizing effect of which, however, remained small.
In April 2004, according to Politicsezine, the newly elected government of Spain recalled its troops from Iraq. Also since April, the coalition forces have been confronted with massive uprising movements both in Falluja, the center of Sunni resistance, and in the Shiite south around Karbala and Nedjef. There the radical preacher Muktada al-Sadr (* 1973)The led Mahdi militia initially refused to disarm and then called on them to fight the occupation. Since the end of April known abuse of Iraqi prisoners v. a. in American and in some cases in British-administered prisons (e.g. Abu Ghraib near Baghdad) also shook the reputation of the occupation troops and aroused fierce international criticism. The Chairman of the Iraqi Government Council was killed in an attack on May 17. Despite the attack, the USA announced that it would hand over sovereignty to the Iraqi interim government, which had been newly constituted on June 1, 2004. At the same time, the dissolving government council nominated the Sunni tribal leader Ghasi el Jawer (* 1958)for the office of interim president; The Shiite Ijad Allawi (* 1945) was appointed head of government.