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Maui Community College – Maui Language Institute
Classes are aimed at students who want to improve English skills for academic or professional purposes. Discloses tuition and resources.
University of Phoenix – Hawaii
Hawaiian campus of this adult education university offers business, nursing, information systems, education, and counseling degree programs.
- COUNTRYAAH: Alphabetical list of national and state-wide business holidays in Hawaii. Includes all country wide and regional public holidays of 2020 in Hawaii.
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The first Hawaiians
Where the first residents of the islands came from between 400-650 AD is still not exactly clear…
Here is an overview of the history:
Probably the first Hawaiians came from the Polynesian area if you want to believe different theories and legends.
With your dexterity in sailing on the open sea, you could also find more distant islands. At that time, shipping in Europe was still in its infancy, the migration of peoples was in progress and even the Vikings did not dare to venture far out to sea. In this context, it is all the better to consider the seafaring achievements of the Polynesians.
Thor Heyerdal describes in his books “Kon Tiki” and “The Secret of Easter Island” the theory that the Polynesians are descendants of the South American Incas who ended up in the Pacific. However, it is not very scientifically recognized, although after the trip of the Kon Tiki parts this theory could no longer be dismissed as “impossible”.
The hard journey across the ocean on huge rafts took generations, and many people died along the way.
Legend has it that the last and most successful section of this journey was led by a direct descendant of the demigod Maui. The masterfully built double-hull canoes with an extremely load-bearing intermediate part were 20-40 m long and made of wood and coconut fiber. They had braided, triangular sails and carried up to 60 people, including supplies and drinking water, crops such as coconut, taro, breadfruit, sweet potato, banana and sugar cane, but also other plants that were needed for medicinal or cosmetic purposes, seeds and animals.
The settlements on the islands emerged only on the coast, where artificial irrigated terraces were created on which the plants brought with them were cultivated. The sea provided additional food. The most important plant was the taro tuber, whose starchy fibers were cooked and then made into a pulp. Poi was then lightly fermented, a staple food that was served with all meals.
The arrival of the whites
In 1778, Captain Cook set foot on Hawaiian soil and a clash of cultures was looming. Adventurers, whalers, sailors, traders and outsiders from the western world followed. In 1820 the first 14 Missonare came from New England, who were appalled by the “sunburned, half-naked savages”. The white “culture” began to take possession of Hawaii.
The whites brought in many unknown diseases, even the smallest infection hit the locals straight away. The problem was compounded by the fact that Hawaiians were always willing to have sexual contact with strangers, and so sailors’ venereal diseases were quickly passed on to the people. The missionaries put a stop to freedom of movement and estimated the native population at only 140,000 people, meaning that the Hawaiians had been decimated by half in less than 40 years since Cook’s arrival. After the venereal diseases, measles, flu and tuberculosis raged on the islands and reduced the population again.
In addition, in the days of the whalers, the excellent local seafarers were hired on the sailing ships, and many never returned. In addition, many Hawaiians found the whites attractive, entered into mixed marriages and thus contributed to the mixing of the Hawaiian blood. In 1940 the fastest growing group in the population was that of mixed race children, and the fastest decreasing was that of pure-blood Hawaiians. Today experts estimate that fewer than 1,000 truly pure-blood Hawaiians live on the islands. 115,000 people have varying percentages of Hawaiian ancestry in their blood.
Caste – The Hawaiians lived on a strict caste system
The Hawaiians lived according to a strict caste system to which its members belonged by birth and from which there were no exceptions. This social system was developed right after their arrival.
The uppermost caste was the chief aristocracy, the Ali`i, whose ancestry could be traced back to the gods. They had a lot of mana power. Only partners of equal rank were allowed to father children in this feudal system. Sibling marriage was quite possible. The people had to pay tribute and the will of the Ali’i was law. A kahuna was a gifted healer and sage whose advice was sought before making important decisions and whose mana was also significant. There were kahunas for the kings and those who advised the common people. Kahuna were very feared in old Hawaii, they mastered black magic and could bring about death. In addition, they were genealogists, medicine men, advisers, guardians of legends, and they watched over the observance of moral laws. That gave them the real power for no Ali`i could rule without his staff of Kahunas. The common people were called Makaainana (the people of the land) and were farmers, hunters and fishermen. They all lived in extended families, so-called Ohanas, and lived in the same piece of land. Inland farmers shared their yields with fishermen and vice versa, so they could all live on the sea and land products. Hunger was almost unknown. In times of war they served as soldiers. The Ali`i could impose capus, strict taboo rules, ban and protection provisions that regulated all coexistence. Kapus were a means of order and an expression of power and arbitrariness. Women were not allowed to eat with men. Kapus determined when to hunt and fish. No acts of war were allowed during tax collection. No shadow was allowed to fall on an Ali`i – etc… Anyone who violated a hood had to expect death. There were also places of refuge for law breakers, the pu’uhonua. The Kapu system was not abolished until 1819 by King Kamehameha II.
Various gods, who shared the creation of the world and man, were worshiped by the Polynesians.
The gods fished the islands out of the sea, brought fire, and begat demigods. Here is a list of the most important: Ku was the forefather of humans and presides over the male gods – his wife Hina rules the female. Ku was the rising sun and the god of war, on whose favor the outcome of the battle depended. Most of the sacrifices were made in him. Kane is the creator. He created the first man out of earth and breathed life into him. Kane is also the Hawaiian word for man, so male privileges are enshrined from the start. Lono appeared as a tree, a fish, or half-human, half-pig. He mastered the most important elements: rain, wind and sea. He brought fertility and peace. He is honored for Thanksgiving. Ku, Kane and Lono created the earth, the sea, the sky and the stars together. Kanaloa appeared as an octopus or as a human, he ruled the earth spirits and ruled the realm of the dead. He was the patron god of healers. Pele is present in every fire and is probably the most famous deity in Hawaii for tourists. Many tourists still believe in their power today and send the lava stones they took with them as souvenirs back to Hawaii because an accident happened to them. Pele is the goddess of the volcanoes and her kingdom was in the crater of Kilauhea on the Big Island. Laka was Pele’s sister and goddess of dance, Maui was a tricky god who caught the sun with a lasso and fished the Hawaiian Islands out of the sea.