The conflict of powers between the head of government and the head of state immediately gave rise to a fierce confrontation between Nawaz Sharif and President Ishaq Khan, which resulted in the resignation of both in July 1993. Political elections were called for October of the same year, these were narrowly won by Benazir Bhutto and the subsequent presidential consultations (November 1993) marked the success of Farooq Leghari, candidate of the PPP. Meanwhile, the worsening of ethnic, political and religious violence, with continuous clashes both in Sind, between Sunnis and Shiites and among militants of the PPP and the MQM party (Mohajir Qaumi Mahaz), both in the north of Pakistan between the army and Islamic fundamentalists, constituted a continuous threat to political stability for the country. The government, then further weakened in October 1995 by the arrest of some soldiers accused of preparing a coup with the support of the Muslim separatists of Kashmir, fell in October 1996 with the dismissal of Bhutto. The latter, accused of abuse of power and bad administration, was briefly placed under house arrest; the same fate also fell to her husband, the investment minister, and other members of the PPP. According to usprivateschoolsfinder, the early elections (February 1997) decreed the victory of the Islamic Democratic Alliance and the leadership of the government was again entrusted to Nawaz Sharif, who remained in office with ups and downs until 1999. Meanwhile, the traditional tension with India, always latent due to the unsolved problems of Kashmir, manifested itself on several occasions. In May 1998, following some nuclear tests carried out by India in the desert of Rajasthan, the government of Pakistan decided to carry out, in response, its own nuclear tests on the border between the two countries.
Sentenced to international sanctions for atomic experiments, in September of the same year the country declared itself willing to agree, together with India, to resume the dialogue on Kashmir, but the talks between the two sides did not lead to any results. Once a new situation of instability arose, the military, in October 1999, took over the government with a coup, proving once again to be the only decisive force in Pakistan. Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, General Pervez Musharraf, arrested, he decreed a state of emergency, suspended the Constitution and Parliament and proclaimed himself head of the government, without hesitating to use hard manners to suppress any manifestation of internal dissidence in the bud. The new regime that was being established, however, was unable to stem the incessant ethnic clashes, which throughout the year 2000 continued to cause numerous victims. On the foreign front, in the meantime, relations with Afghanistan, where the Taliban are becoming more complicated they had taken power (1994) and whose support was renewed, but asylum was refused to the numerous refugees; The conflicts with India continued, with armed clashes in Kashmir. In view of a summit with the Indian authorities, in June 2001 General Musharraf, to further consolidate his political position, was also appointed president of Pakistan, while still remaining at the head of the armed forces. Now the sole holder of power, a few months later General Musharraf was to assume a crucial role in the conflict that began in Afghanistan on October 7, 2001. Following the attacks of September 11, the United States they asked Pakistan to collaborate in the fight against Islamic terrorism and to take a stand against the Taliban regime, which in Afghanistan gave asylum to the wanted Osama Bin Laden. The positive response of the regime provoked a series of protests by the pro-Taliban, making the internal situation worsening and prompting Musharraf to purge a part of the military leaders believed to be close to the Taliban.
In May 2002, the president was reconfirmed in power for another five years thanks to the overwhelming victory obtained in a specially called referendum, which was, however, subjected to accusations of heavy irregularities by the opposition. In August of the same year, Musharraf attributed to himself the possibility of dissolving Parliament at any time and the task of appointing the heads of the army and air force. The president also created a National Security Council, composed of his loyalists within the army and public administration. The internal situation, however, continued to remain unstable: in 2003 a series of attacks, in places on the border with Afghanistan, brought up the problem of coexistence between Sunnis and Shiites. In 2004, Parliament voted to trust the president, legitimizing him to hold office until 2007 and in the same year Pakistan was readmitted to the Commonwealth, from which he was suspended in 1999, following the coup that brought Musharraf to power. Negotiations with India were resumed to reach a solution to the conflict in Kashmir and the two countries decided to re-establish normal diplomatic relations. In 2007 Musharraf obtained the third presidential term, which had to be confirmed by the Constitutional Court, imposed martial law, suspending the Constitution, but following international protests, he confirmed his will to hold legislative elections and left the position of chief of forces armed by taking office as a civilian. In December, a kamikaze attack killed Benazir Bhutto during the electoral campaign, causing clashes and unrest throughout the country. The elections, in February 2008, were won by the Bhutto party, the PPPP (Parliamentarians of the Pakistani People’s Party) and the Muslim League, thus recording the defeat of Musharraf, who resigned in August. In September the parliament elected Asif Ali Zardari the new president. In 2013, Mamnoon Hussain became president.