Inner Mongolia, Nei-meng-ku, Nei Monggol Zizhiqu [- ts ɪ d ʒ ɪ ], autonomous region in northern China, on the border with Mongolia, 1.178 million km 2, (2010) 24.7 million residents (of which approx 17% Mongols, also Manchu and Hui); The capital is Hohhot. Inner Mongolia has existed since May 1, 1947 as the first autonomous region in China, formed from former provinces. After various border changes – also in connection with the former Soviet Union – it has only existed in its present form and area since 1979.
Inner Mongolia comprises part of the Mongolian plateau (on average 800-1,000 m above sea level), the desert area of the Ordos plateau, which is surrounded by the Hwangho, and the Great Chingan in the northeast. About two thirds of the area are plateaus, making it the second largest in China after the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. It is dominated by a semi-arid climate with a high level of continentality. In winter, the area is under the influence of the inner-Asian cold peak; the January average is between −10 ° C and −30 ° C. In July, on the other hand, mean temperatures of 16 to 27 ° C prevail; the daily amplitudes of the temperature can reach almost 40 ° C with strong nocturnal cooling. 80–90% of the precipitation falls in the months of May to September. While the annual precipitation in the Great Chingan is still 500–600 mm and at Hohhot around 400 mm, it decreases further west, where the desert areas of the Gobi begin, to less than 300 mm. Inner Mongolia has the largest grassland area in China (880,000 km2). Depending on the climatic conditions, the grasslands change in an east-west direction from forest steppes over the so-called typical steppes to semi- steppes and desert steppes.
The grass steppes preferred by the Mongolian nomads as pastureland in the more rainy east have been cultivated more and more since the 19th century in the course of the Chinese development of the area. A large part of the Mongolian nomadsare settled today; Around 200,000 still live as migrant cattle herders in the northern border areas in typical round tents (yurts). Mainly sheep and goats are kept, as well as cattle, horses and camels. Wheat and oats, sugar beets and oilseeds are grown on irrigated land, millet and kaoliang are grown on dry fields. Forestry looks after 160,000 km 2Forest area especially in the northeast. The development of mineral resources and the development of a modern industry began in the 1950s: construction of the steel combines in Baotou, extraction of hard coal, rare earths and natural gas; Salt and soda supply the salt lakes of the desert areas. There are also sugar, cotton, engineering and leather industries. The Trans-Mongolian Railway from Beijing-Jining-Ulan Bator (and on to Moscow) is of particular importance for traffic.
Hohhot, Huhehot, Huhehaote, until 1954 Kueisui, Guisui, capital of the Chinese autonomous region Inner Mongolia, on the Beijing – Baotou railway line, 2.87 million residents in the entire administrative area, 1.8 million of them in the city districts. The official city is located around the train station, and the old city with the business district is a little further away. Hohhot has a Mongolian university (founded in 1957), PH and technical colleges (animal husbandry, veterinary medicine, forestry, medicine), Mongolian national museum; Leather and wool industry, chemical industry, construction of diesel engines, rolling mill, sugar refinery; Airfield.
The White Pagoda (Wanbu Huayanjing Ta) was built between 983 and 1031 under the Liao dynasty. The Five Pagoda Temple (Wuta Si) was built in 1740 as a step pagoda surrounded by four smaller pagodas; Building decoration through green glazed tile roofs. Sino-Tibetan Buddhist monasteries from the Ming period are the Xilituzhao Lama Monastery and the Dazhao Monastery (16th century).
Today’s Hohhot emerged from the Mongolian settlement of Köke-khota (Kuku-khoto, “Blue City”, later called Kueihua by the Chinese), a center of Tibetan Buddhism, and the Chinese administrative center 4 km northeast of it Suiyuan. Both cities were finally united under the name of Kueisui.
Jilin [d ʒ -], Kirin, city in Jilin Province, China, population 1.47 million; Paper, chemical, iron and glass industry, turbines and agricultural machinery construction, oil mills, timber industry; Shipping terminus on Songhua Jiang and railway junction.
Heilongjiang [-d ʒ -], Heilungkiang, province in the extreme northeast of China, named after the Heilong Jiang (Amur) who borders it in the north; the border with Russia is about 3,000 km. 463 600 km 2, (2010) 38.3 million residents. The population is ethnically very heterogeneous, including Manchu, Dauren, Mongols, Koreans, Russians; Han Chinese immigrated since the mid-19th century. The capital is Harbin. Heilongjiang includes Little Chingan, the northern section of the central Manchurian mountain country and the marshland on the lower reaches of Songhua Jiang and Ussuri. The fertile black earth areas are among the most important grain-growing areas in the country. In a temperate climate, spring wheat, sugar beets, soybeans, sunflowers and flax are grown. Rich coal deposits are mined near Shuangyashan. The Daqing oil field is located near Anda (northwest of Harbin). Deposits of graphite, potash and feldspar are of national importance. Important paper and wood processing industry as well as food processing; important industrial locations are Harbin, Qiqihar, Jiamusi and Mudanjiang. Because of the border location, state-owned companies have been dominant since 1949. The old, The east China railway, built by Russia in 1896–1903, runs in its total length through Heilongjiang (many new branch lines, from Harbin branch to the south). Since the late 1980s, the province’s northern border zone has been an important hub for Sino-Russian trade.
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Amur der, Chinese Heilong Jiang [- d ʒ -], Heilungkiang, Mongolian Chara-Muren, stream in East Asia, arises from the confluence of the Schilka and Argun, flows into the Amurliman, in the north, after 2,824 km west of the northern part of the island of Sakhalin of the Tatar Sound (Sea of Okhotsk).
Together with the Argun, the river length is 4,440 km. The catchment area covers around 1.85 million km 2, of which around 1 million km 2 belong to Russia, around 820,000 km 2 to China and 33,000 km 2 to Mongolia. At 1,893 km the Amur (and upstream the Argun) forms the border between Russia and China. The main tributaries are the Seja, Bureja and Amgun from the left, and the Songhua Jiang (Sungari) and Ussuri from the right. The water flow is very uneven, the water level fluctuates in the middle course by 10-15 m, at Khabarovsk by 6-7 m and at the mouth of the river by 2 m. The annual mean discharge at Khabarovsk is 11,100 m 3 / second, the annual minimum is 2 000 m 3/Second. The Amur is the most important waterway in the Russian Far East and is navigable along its entire length, but navigation is hindered by long ice cover (upper course from early November to early May; lower course from late November to late April), ice jams in spring, by moving sandbanks and shallows. The most important ports are Blagoveshchensk, Khabarovsk, Komsomolsk on the Amur and Nikolayevsk. The once great abundance of fish (especially salmon) in the lower reaches declined due to industrial pollution (discharge of sewage, heavy metal pollution). The largest city on the Amur is Khabarovsk.
The Amur, which a Cossack division first reached in 1644, had belonged to the border area between Russia and China since the 17th century (recognized as a Chinese dominion in the Treaty of Nerchinsk 1689). Through the Treaties of Aigun (1858) and Beijing (1860) Russia gained the left bank of the Amur and the coastal province. In 1937 there were Russian-Manchurian (Japanese) incidents around the Amur Islands. The exact course of the border on the Amur has repeatedly been the subject of conflicts between the Soviet Union and China. Since December 20, 1970, a Sino-Soviet protocol has regulated shipping on the border rivers.
Harbin, Charbin [x-], Ha | erbin, capital of Heilongjiang Province, Manchuria, one of the most important industrial centers of northeast China, in a fertile plain on the middle reaches of the busy Songhua Jiang, 10.64 million residents in the entire administrative area, including 4, 60 million residents in the city districts;With a technical university, technical colleges (agriculture and forestry, medicine, construction machinery, foreign languages), libraries and museums, it is the cultural center of the province; Manufacture of power plant machines, electric motors, ball bearings, machine tools, agricultural machinery, precision mechanical devices, small cars and minibuses; Construction of regional aircraft (in cooperation with Brazil); important trading center (agricultural products) and center of the food industry in Manchuria (sugar factories, mills, processing of soybeans, meat, milk); Railway junction, major river port (ice-free April to October), airport.
Numerous Orthodox churches, including Russian buildings, commemorate the time after the Russian October Revolution, when Harbin was a refuge for Russian emigrants. The popular art of making illuminated ice sculptures (“ice lanterns”), which is widespread in northern China, culminates in the annual Harbin Ice Lantern Show (January / February).
Harbin, an insignificant market town until the late 19th century, was expanded into a city in 1898 in connection with the establishment of the East China Railway (by the Russians) based on the model of Moscow; Opened to foreign trade in 1909, occupied by the Japanese in 1932 and sold as Pinkiang Manchukuo. In 1949 it became the provincial capital.
Chingan [t ʃ i ŋ gan], Chinese Xing’an Ling [t ʃ -], Hinggan Ling, two mountain ranges in north and northeast China: Great Chingan (Da Xing’an Ling, Da Hinggan Ling), from the Amur arch over approx. Reaching 800 km to the north of Beijing, separates the central lowlands in the east (Manchuria) from the Mongolian plateau in the west; mainly composed of metamorphic rocks, granites and basalts, on average 1,200, in the south up to about 2,000 m above sea level. In the north larches and birches, in the east also oaks, form extensive forests; in the south steppe extends to the mountain heights. Little Chingan (Xiao Xing’an Ling, Xiao Hinggan Ling), about 500 km long low mountain range (up to about 1,200 m above sea level) northeast of the Great Chingan, surrounded by the Amur in the northeast in a deep valley gorge; only densely wooded at higher altitudes.