Newspapers in Slovakia
According to THESCIENCETUTOR.ORG, Slovakia is a country located in Europe. In Slovakia there are about 20 daily newspapers with a total edition of 900,000 copies. Newspaper publishing in Slovak began in the 1870s. The biggest is the sensational newspaper Nový čas (founded in 1991, 230,000 copies) and one of the leading newspapers of the Communist era, the party organization Pravda (founded in 1920, now unbound, 235,000 copies).
Radio in Slovak started in 1926 and TV in 1956. The radio, Slovenský rozhlas, broadcasts in four channels and Slovenská Televízia in two, half of which is reserved for private TV. Radio and TV are financed with license fees (70%) and advertising (30%). Private radio was allowed in 1991. There are 965 radio and 407 TV receivers per 1,000 residents (2000).
According to APARENTINGBLOG, Slovak folk culture differs from other West Slavic cultures. This is probably due to the fact that the Slovaks for centuries lived under Hungarian rule, cut off from other Slavic peoples.
A unified Slovak writing language was created in 1843 by the theologian Ľudovít Štúr. After the founding of Czechoslovakia in 1918, great efforts were made to strengthen Slovak culture. Among the more well-known authors of this era are Ján Smrek, Milo Urban and the circle around the left-wing magazine DAV. Later writers such as Ladislav Mňačko and Dominik Tatarka are noted.
Slovak culture, which has long been in the shadow of the Czech, now stands on its own. Theater and music are well developed and a Slovak production of their own has started. The leading film director is Martin Šulík.
Freedom of the press and opinion is guaranteed by the Constitution. During the communist era (1948–1989) the media were completely controlled by the rulers, but even later their freedom was limited. 2006-2010 when the country was ruled by a left-wing government led by Direction-Social Democracy (Smer-SD), the state pressure on the media increased.
In 2008, a law was introduced that forced all media to allow everyone mentioned in the media to give a reply. The law was harshly criticized not only by the country’s journalists, but also by the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). The country’s courts were inundated by alleged cases of slander in the media. After a right-wing government led by the Slovak Democratic and Christian Union (SKDÚ-DS) took office in 2010, the number of advocacy goals and demands for media replies and law was abolished the following year.
In 2011, it was revealed that the State Security Service has been listening to four journalists for several months, including the head of TA3 TV channel Michal Gucik. The order came from Defense Minister L’ubomir Galko, who later resigned. From an official point of view, it was said that the journalists were eavesdropped because they appeared in a criminal investigation, something that was never proven.
The largest newspapers have private, often foreign owners. By far the biggest edition is the evening newspaper Novýas, which is owned by a Swiss company. The second largest is the daily newspaper Pravda, which was bought by Slovak investors from the British owners in 2010. The newspaper was formerly the Communist Party’s body, but is now politically unbound. The new owners also own the TV channel Joj. Another significant newspaper is the liberal, German-owned SME.
At the end of 2010, the state TV and radio companies merged into a joint RTVS company. This is to become stronger against the increasingly commercial etheric media. From 2013, TV viewers no longer have to pay licensing fees, but RTVS will be fully financed through the state budget.
Of the many private TV channels, three broadcast across the country: Markíza, TA3 and TV Joj. Most viewers have Markíza, started by liberal politician Pavol Rusko, but now owned by American investors, followed by Joj and RTVS’s Channel 1. Many Slovakians also watch Czech and Hungarian TV. There are also about thirty private radio channels. Some of them are organized in networks covering the whole country.
FACTS – MASS MEDIA
Percentage of the population using the internet
81 percent (2018)
Number of mobile subscriptions per 100 residents
Right-wing extremist in elections
In the local elections, right-wing nationalist Marian Kotleba is successful in the Banská Bystrica region of central Slovakia. He ranks second in the governor’s first round and moves on to a decisive round, and he receives the most votes in the regional assembly elections. The result is a cold shower for democratic politicians. Political analysts are shocked when Kotleba then gets 55 percent of the vote in the second round of the governorship election. The victory is explained by strong anti-Roman sentiments in the region.
EU call to demolish wall
The Košice municipal authorities, the European Capital of Culture 2013, are urged by the European Commission to demolish the wall built to keep the Roma and the rest of the city’s residents separate (see June).
Wall at Roman settlement
In Slovakia’s second largest city, Košice, a wall is erected next to a Roman settlement, after other locals complained of theft and disorder in a nearby parking lot.
Grants against the Roma
More than 60 riot police strike a settlement for Roma in the city of Moldava nad Bodvou in southeastern Slovakia. Thirty people were injured. The voluntary organization ETP, which works for the integration of Roma, believed that the police used violence.
A Slovakian accused of spying in Iran is released and returns to his home country. The man had been imprisoned and shown on Iranian TV with an alleged confession that he was spying for US intelligence. He himself claimed his innocence and said he did not know why he was arrested.