Known in antiquity as the “Land of Punt”, the term suma’le appears for the first time at the beginning of 1400 in a hymn in honor of the negus Yeshaq and could derive from the Arabic dhù màli (possessors of wealth). Groups of Islamized Arabs from the Arabian Peninsula and the Persian Gulf settled, between the century. VII and XVI, on the Somali coast mixing with the galla people who inhabited the territory. In the sec. XIV, there were various sultanates both in the north (such as Adal in Zeila capital) is in the region of Shabelle (such as Agiuràn). The Chinese fleets of the first emperors Ming visited the coastal towns of Somalia (Mogadishu, Brava, Giumbo) between 1417 and 1431. In 1499 Vasco da Gama on his return from India shelled Mogadishu, in 1507 Tristao da Cunha sacked Brava and in 1532 Estevao da Gama was a guest of the Sultan of Mogadishu. The Portuguese influence, directed above all to supplant Arab trade, gradually declined starting from the century. XVII and various sultanates established themselves both on the coast and in the interior of Somalia. The Omani expansion, favored by England, accentuated its grip, in the century. XIX, on the whole coast of East Africa. The Sultan of Zanzibar Seyyid Saʽīd and his successors then claimed possession. At the time of colonial competition between the European powers, Great Britain, France and Italy tried to secure positions in that area. Since 1862 France occupied the area around the Gulf of Tadjoura (Afar and Issa, French Territory of the -); England Berber, Bulhar and Zeila (1884), then establishing the Somaliland protectorate (1888); Italy, having concluded a trade treaty with the sultan of Zanzibar (1885), obtained, through England, the leasing of the ports of Benadir (1892) and assumed the protectorate of the sultanates of Obbia and Migiurtinia (1889). Once the borders between the French Somali Coast and Somaliland were defined (1888), the borders between this and Italian Somalia (1894) and between this and Ethiopia (1897) were then established. Starting from 1899, Somaliland and Italian Somalia had to face the revolt of the Muslim holy man M. ‘Abdullāh ibn Ḥasan (the ” Mad Mullāh “Of the English), which lasted until their death in 1920. Both for this reason and for the small importance of the territory, Somaliland was administered with little interest from England. The administration of Benadir was first entrusted to the Filonardi Company (1893-96) and then to the Benadir Commercial Limited Company until 1905, when the Italian government assumed direct administration. With the Organic Law of April 5, 1908, the colony of “Italian Somalia” took shape juridically. On July 15, 1924, an Anglo-Italian convention sanctioned the sale of Oltregiuba to Italy, as compensation for participation in the First World War. The accident at the Ual Ual wells (the border between Somalia and Ethiopia had remained the subject of dispute) at the end of 1934 gave Italy the pretext for the war of Ethiopian conquest (1935-36) and during the world conflict Somaliland was also invaded by Italian forces. Having lost its colonies with the peace treaty of 1947, Italy obtained from the UN in 1949 the ten-year trusteeship (1950-60) of Somalia.
According to topschoolsintheusa, the traditional home of Somalis is clearly affected by the type of economy and the way of life of a population which, mainly devoted to nomadic breeding, has never given excessive importance to permanent establishments. Especially in the northern territories, where pastoralism is the only possible activity, the most common dwelling is the akkal (tent-hut), consisting of a skeleton formed by flexible branches bent in an arch and stuck in the ground by the ends in a row parallel; to this series of supports is added another arranged horizontally, linked to the first with vegetable fibers; the rudimentary structure is covered with mats and skins. When the stay in a certain place must be prolonged for some time, the zeriba (thorny brambles), which provides basic protection against animals. Further to the S, where agriculture is at least as important as pastoralism and the two activities practiced jointly allow a more solid economy, even the houses take on a more comfortable appearance and are concentrated in fairly populous villages. The tent-hut is replaced by the mondul (circular hut), very similar to the Ethiopian tucul. The mondul it is formed by a framework of poles planted circularly, reinforced by flexible branches joined horizontally; in the center, a taller and sturdier pole supports a conical frame of branches that descends like an umbrella to the outer wall. The roof is covered with a thick layer of straw, while the walls, also of woven straw, are plastered with clay, cow dung and lime. Along the coast, where the Arab population lives, the houses are built in masonry, with a rectangular plan and a terrace roof, concentrated in small towns. The Somali populations have preserved ancient customs until recent times; for example, if a boy was born to a noble shepherd, a sheep was sacrificed whose blood was poured on the baby’s head to infuse him with the courage that would make him a proud man; the baby’s navel was tied with the hair of the tail of a camel that would become his property. Among the artisanal productions are of particular beautycotton futa that serve as togas to cover up. The working of wood (bowls, various containers, combs, bells), terracotta, sidearms, gold, skins and mats, which are mainly entrusted to women, is very widespread. For nomads and shepherds the main food is the milk of camels, goats and cows; old camels can be slaughtered when guests arrive for a ceremony, and the fat hump is considered a real delicacy. The meat (including liver) of sheep and goats is quite common; however, it is cooked a few times a month and only on special occasions. Other foods consumed by nomads are durra (sorghum in grains), honey, dates, rice and tea. Southern farmers grow wheat, beans, sorghum, millet, few vegetables and few varieties of fruit. The most common bread is the muufo, made with corn flour. Somalis season their food with butter and ghee, the clear liquid made from melted butter; sweeten with sugar, sorghum or honey. Although fish is abundant along the coasts, Somalis do not like it; following Islamic law, they do not eat pork and do not drink alcohol. The most popular drinks are water, coffee, tea and milk.