As far as architecture is concerned, the political change, which began with the accession to the throne of Juan Carlos I and culminated in the promulgation of the Constitution, did not cause abrupt changes, as the most famous architects themselves continued to work, alongside others of the new generations.
From 1982, with the socialist government, the number of public works increased as a result of the increase in state and local taxes that fed state companies. Municipalities, autonomous governments and the state began major works in both the public and private sectors. In Barcelona, for example, the municipality created a municipal company called ” Iniciativas, SA ”, specializing in the construction of hotels, the renovation of private buildings and the restoration of monuments. The architects who were entrusted with the work were the same as in 1975, and the styles they adopted were those then in fashion: a certain continuity based on Le Corbusier’s rationalism, always taken as a model by the schools of architecture, a certain “ brutalism ” with exposed brick buildings, and the
The state bodies invested a lot of resources to acquire the work of external architects, while their own officials were employed only for bureaucratic tasks. Despite this, good results have not always been obtained. An example of this is the reorganization of the Moll de la Fusta, in the port of Barcelona, which later had to be rectified, or the House of Culture, opposite the Baroque church of Charity, in Seville.
The most notable buildings from this period are the headquarters of the banking institutions. In 1980, JJ Sáinz de Oiza designed the Banco de Bilbao in Madrid, with an undoubtedly original glass and metal facade. Also in the capital, R. Moneo, who had built the Bankinter headquarters in 1977, is also the author of the Archaeological Museum of Mérida, in Extremadura, a work much discussed for its excessive monumentalism; he also designed the Town Hall of Logroño (La Rioja) in 1980. From the complex set of works created in this period it is not possible to deduce a language that is more or less common to them, and only the compositional ability of some architects came to create buildings interesting for their correct proportions.
JA Corrales was the author, in 1982, of a house in Aravaca of admirable size; A. Campo completed the Town Hall of Ferre, in Galicia. More personal and interesting, from a constructive point of view, is the work of F. Higueras, author (1984) of the López Torres Museum in Tomelloso de la Mancha and of the small villa of La Macarrona di Samosaguas in Madrid (1976). The posthumous work of JA Coderch de Sentmenat (1913-1984), the best of contemporary Spanish architects, was the extension of the Barcelona School of Architecture, whose curved lines and the nuanced treatment of natural light indicate an overcoming so much of rationalism than organicism. Also in Barcelona we must remember the soft and balanced line of the Orta Velodrome, by Borrell y Rius; the restoration of the Palazzo della Musica was less successful, of the Convento de los Angeles and of the Casa Serra, now the seat of the provincial government. Buildings of great opening are the musical auditoriums of Granada and Madrid, as well as relevant urban engineering works, such as the bridge of Spain Calatrava in San Martín (Barcelona) and the elevated walkway by C. Fernández Casado on the Ronda Litoral in Barcelona.
Spanish architecture after 1989 was characterized by two exceptional events: the celebration of the xxv Olympic Games in Barcelona in July 1992, and the Universal Exposition held in Seville in the period from April to October of the same year.
In view of the Olympics, a plan of high-speed roads designed in 1962 was resumed in Barcelona, which had not been possible due to lack of means. It essentially consists of the so-called Rondas, one in the upper part of the city (Ronda de Dalt), and another, parallel to the sea, called Ronda Litoral. These Rondas, or ring roads, on different levels, serve as a link with the motorways leaving Barcelona, and have allowed an increase in the circulation of private vehicles in the city. From the architectural point of view they do not bring anything new, except for some avant-garde decorative elements. To improve audiovisual communications, two tall metal towers were built. On the side of the Tibidabo mountain was built the tower of the English architect N. Foster, whose fixing by steel cables produces a strong feeling of instability, but which is disproportionate to the surrounding landscape and buildings. The tower of the telephone company was erected on Montjuïc by the Valencian architect and engineer Spain Calatrava Valls. For Spain 2000, please check neovideogames.com.
Also on Montjuïc, formerly the site of the Universal Exposition of 1929, numerous sports facilities were built. The old stadium from 1929 was renovated with a grandstand equipped with a metal roof, the work of the Italian architect V. Gregotti, while the expansion of the steps and the restoration of the facades was entrusted to the Spanish architects F. Correa, A. Milá, J Margarit and C. Buxadé. Next to the stadium, the covered pavilion by the Japanese architect A. Isozaki was erected, the structure of which was mounted on the ground and then raised by means of hydraulic pumps. Its internal aspect is very pleasant, but outwardly it is too attached to the ground and lacks momentum. The National Institute of Physical Education was also built on a project by the architect R. Bofill. The Olympic Village, totally new, located in a place where many buildings had to be demolished and the path of the railway and the Bogatell collector diverted, it appears as a set of buildings without any relationship between them. The urban plan of Bohigas, Martorell and Mackay is highly questionable for the construction of two very tall skyscrapers right in front of the sea. Other renovations or construction of new buildings were not finished on schedule, such as the Museum of Contemporary Art, in the historic center, or the renovation of the Museum of Art of Catalonia, in the National Palace of 1929, according to a project by G. Aulenti.
In Seville and on the so-called Cartuja island, on the Guadalquivir river, the buildings of the 1992 Universal Exposition were built, which coincided with the 5th centenary of the discovery of America. The new airport was also built on a project by the architect R. Moneo and the opera house of the Maestranza. The Exhibition on the island of Cartuja occupied 215 ha; more than 100 countries and 20 large companies, as many international organizations and 17 Spanish Autonomous Communities have raised their pavilions. Access to the island was made possible thanks to four modern bridges of bold construction. The thematic pavilions dedicated to the 15th century, navigation, the present and the future have been placed in the central axis of the exhibition. Omnimax were made, a Space Theater for 400 people who can contemplate images projected on a dome almost 30 m in diameter; an outdoor auditorium for 6000 spectators; the so-called Palenque, an indoor arena for musical and dance performances; as well as a stadium, rowing facilities, playgrounds for children and numerous hotels, among which the luxurious Príncipe de Asturias stands out.
An area of 500,000 m 2was intended for parks and gardens: for the Expo ’92 in Seville, the largest green area in Europe was built, with 400 different species of plants, 350,000 trees and numerous metal pergolas to support a large number of climbing plants and offer visitors cool and shade. A great night show with laser beams and fireworks was repeated every evening on the large lake located next to the Spanish pavilion. A hundred restaurants and many bars and kiosks have been distributed throughout the area. Significant, among others, the Spain pavilion, with an important collection of works of art; of Italy, of enormous dimensions; the Vatican, of museographic interest; of France, with an original structure; of Japan, with a luxurious wooden construction and a rotating cinema; of Norway, around a huge block of ice. Among the pavilions of the Spanish autonomous communities, that of Castile-León, that of Asturias, with the reproduction of the prehistoric cave of Altamira, that of Valencia and that of the Canary Islands stood out. An exhibition of works of art from the most important museums in the world was set up in the building of the ancient Cartuja (Certosa) de las Cuevas. Complementary to the exhibition in the Cartuja and in the pavilions of the Spain and the Vatican, the exhibition set up inside the Cathedral of Seville, based on its artistic funds. You see the exhibition set up inside the Cathedral of Seville, based on his artistic funds. You see the exhibition set up inside the Cathedral of Seville, based on his artistic funds.