Afghanistan has been a republic since King Mohammed Zahir Shah was deposed in 1973 by his cousin and brother-in-law Daud, who was proclaimed president (he is also prime minister). In 1923, the country received its first constitution, which was last amended in 1964. Then a Parliament (Shura) was established, consisting of two chambers: the House of the People (Woleshi Yirgah, 216 deputies) and the House of the Ancients (Meshrano Yirgah, 84 members). The country is divided into 29 prov., each under a governor who heads the elected provincial council. the prov. are divided into districts and municipalities. There is active and passive suffrage for both men and women. There is little interest in politics. There are hardly any political parties. The administration of justice is carried out by independent courts headed by the Supreme Court (9 judges). The law is still largely based on the Quran. However, more and more elements of Western law are penetrating. Money and finance. Currency is the Afghani (= 100 pul). There is an official rate ($1 = 45.00 deg.) and a free rate ($1 = 79.26 deg. in 1971). Afghanistan’s foreign debt amounted to approximately $475 million in 1970, 75% of which is owed to the USSR. An important source of income for the government is natural gas and tourism. There has been a deficit in the state budget for years. The country received foreign aid from the USSR and the US. In 1974 Iran promised substantial aid. See collegesanduniversitiesinusa for Afghanistan Education and Training.