Even more than agriculture, industry has undergone a profound transformation in the new Turkey. In the pre-war period, in addition to the transformation of agricultural products, the only activity of some importance was that of carpets (see carpet). Wool and cotton fabrics were also produced, as well as hemp ropes, while the silk industry, which had an ancient tradition (1850: 3,000 looms and 3 million kg of silk) was in considerable decline. The capitular regime, which left Turkey’s ports and markets open to foreign goods, allowed western industries to easily gain the upper hand. The Kemalist government first endeavored (law on the encouragement of industry, 1927) to facilitate private enterprise and also burdened (from 1929) the importation of foreign goods with protective duties; but although the industry could now also count on more experienced workers (refugees from European countries), little could progress and even if between 1926 and 1932 890 factories were built, these, apart from a sugar factory and a cement factory, they were all small. The state therefore considered it necessary to deal directly with the installation of some industry necessary for the country. And, similar to what has been done in Russia, a five-year plan has been prepared, facilitating in every way the economic independence, among other things with the creation of a special state bank (Sümer Bank) to subsidize the new plants, paying little attention to whether the products cost a lot, given that the increase in the customs tariff protected them from imports. As for sugar, Turkey was foreign tax, but in 1930 two factories were inaugurated in Alpullu and UŞak, in 1933 two others in EskiŞehir and Turhal, in order to cover the needs (60 thousand tons). For cotton fabrics, in addition to the existing factories (Bakïrköy near Istanbul, Izmit, Adana, Mersina), three other spinning mills have been opened in Caesarea, Ereǧli, Nazilli and a fourth is under construction in Malatya; in 1937 there will be 230,000 spindles and 4,880 looms available instead of 101,000 and 1,400 in 1933, in order to cover four fifths of the requirement. In Brussa a spinning mill was built for worsted wool (10,000 spindles), a sack factory in Tire, a plant for artificial silk in Gemlik, a paper mill in Izmit, a glass factory in PaŞabahçe. A metallurgical plant, which meanwhile works imported Swedish iron while waiting to be able to use that of the Faras mines in the Taurus, has been built in Zonguldak, near the coal mines.
According to Topschoolsintheusa, the fishing industry has been able to make much progress to the advantage of Turkey, after it (Article 9 of the Lausanne trade agreement) has reserved all rights, not only of fishing, but also of maritime cabotage, along its coasts. The total annual product is around 10 million kg.; the most fishy areas are the stretch of the Pontic coast between the mouth of the Kïzïl Irmak and the Russian border, the shores of the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles, almost all those of the Sea of Marmara and especially the Gulf of Smyrna. Sponge fishing once gave good income along the coasts of western Anatolia.
The mining industry already in the pre-war period tended to progress; the production of 490 thousand tons of coal. in 1903 it had increased to 827 thousand tons in 1913, that of chromium-plated iron from 12 thousand to 33 thousand and thus the production of emery and manganese. Sea foam (hydrated magnesium silicate) was also widely exported. There was also an overabundance of salt. The scarcity of railways, of suitable workers and of capital, has so far allowed a very scarce development of Turkish mines, which are nevertheless considerable. In 1934 the production was as follows (in tonnes):
Compared to 1913, the production of coal, which comes entirely from the Eraclea-Zonguldak mines, has therefore almost tripled. Exploitation currently takes place by about twenty companies. The basin extends over a length of 200 km. and for 50 wide; the coal soils are arranged in three parallel bands not far from the sea and not very deep, in the surroundings there is a great abundance of timber and the ports of embarkation are easily accessible. For copper, the Ergani region is important, as the new Diyarbekir railway opens at the port of Mersina; the annual production of 20 thousand tons is expected. Chromed iron mines are found in the vilâyet of Brussa, Smyrna, Adana, Conia and production rapidly increased from 7500 tons. in 1925 to 30,000 in 1930, to quadruple in 1934; lead is extracted in the Balïkesir vilâyet, emery in the region around Smyrna. Good prospects are presented for oil, manganese, silver, antimony, sulfur; a mine of the latter was opened in 1934 at Keciborlu in the NW. of Sparta (prod. 4 thousand tons). Cement production is also significantly increasing (168,000 tons in 1934, against 100,000 in 1931, 41,000 in 1927 and just 7,000 two years earlier).