According to phonecations, Ulan-Ude is the capital of the Republic of Buryatia. The city is located in a mountain depression at an altitude of 500-800 m above sea level. In the vicinity of Ulan-Ude, the ridges rise – Khamar-Daban, Ulan-Burgasy and Tsagan-Daban. The city appeared in 1666 at the confluence of the Selenga and Uda rivers as a Cossack outpost, from where Russian Cossacks moved east. From the end of the 17th century, it became a stronghold that provided protection for caravans traveling to Chinaand Mongolia along the “Great Tea Road” for trade. With the opening of this path in Russia tea became popular, moreover, even more than the national drink – kvass. Trade with neighboring countries brought fame to the city, fairs were held here every year, which take place to this day. Initially, it was called Verkhneudinsk, and in 1934 it was renamed Ulan-Ude, which means “red river” in the Buryat language.
The main sights of the city are located along the main street – Lenin Street. Celebrations and rallies are held here. At the very beginning of the street stands the Odigitrievsky Cathedral. It was built in the second half of the 18th century. Inside the cathedral there are gilded carved iconostases, and not far from it there is a bell tower and a small refectory. Walking along the street, you will see many houses of the 19th century, which belonged to merchants in the past. Today, these buildings, made in the spirit of classicism, are shops, offices and government agencies.
Lenin Street connects two squares, Soviet Square and Revolution Square. Sovetov Square is the main square of Ulan-Ude. In the center of it stands the House of Soviets (1931), where the city administration is located. Here stands the monument to V.I. Lenin, which is a head of a great leader cast in bronze, 7.5 m high and weighing 42 tons. Opposite Sovetov Square is the most beautiful building in Ulan-Ude – the building of the Buryat State Order of Lenin Opera and Ballet Theatre. It was erected in 1952 on the edge of a 12-meter cliff, from where a beautiful view of the city opens. Above the central portal of the theater rises the sculpture “Horsemen” with a fluttering banner. Revolution Square is the oldest square in the city. In the past, various fairs and bazaars were held on it, for which in the 17-19 centuries it was called the Bazaar. Gostiny Ryads, Trading Rows, old administrative buildings, as well as a monument to the fallen fighters for communismwith memorial plaques in Russian, Mongolian, Korean and Chinese.
The seating rows were designed at the beginning of the 19th century, however, they were never completed. They were used as a warehouse for storing goods, and today a shopping center is located here. There are several attractions on Pobedy Avenue. There is a city park with a memorial to Zelyak warriors. The memorial consists of a T-34 tank, which was installed in 1967 in memory of the Buryats who died during the Great Patriotic War, and an eternal flame. Nearby is the Church of the Holy Trinity. 19th century. It was built in baroque and classicism style and is visible from almost all points of the city. At the beginning of the avenue there is a memorial stone with two Orthodox crosses, which marks the place where the Verkhneudinsk prison was founded in the 17th century.
There are many museums in Ulan-Ude. Of interest are the Museum of the city of Ulan-Ude , which tells about the history of the capital of Buryatia, the Geological Museum with a collection of ores of Transbaikalia, one of the oldest museums in Siberia – the Museum of the History of Buryatia named after Khangalov (1923) – with a unique collection that includes books, coins, Buddhist icons (tanks), works of Russian art, as well as many foreign countries of Asia, as well as the world’s only Atlas of Tibetan medicine and works made of wood and papier-mâché Buryat masters, the Sampilov Art Museum, which presents numerous crafts of Buryat masters, the Museum of Nature of Buryatia, which tells about the main natural attractions of the region, and the Ethnographic Museum of the Peoples of Transbaikalia, which is located in the suburbs and is an open-air museum where traditional dwellings, tools are labor and household items of the peoples of Transbaikalia.
On the slopes of the Ulan-Burgasy ridge, not far from Ulan-Ude There are several tracks for skiing and snowboarding. Mostly locals and lovers of extreme sports ride here. For beginner snowboarders and skiers, the area of \u200b\u200bthe village of Arshan can be advised. There is a ski base with lifts, the slope has a slight slope, there is an equipment rental and bars. The most popular place in the vicinity of Ulan-Ude is the village of Verkhnyaya Brezovka. In this recreation area, in addition to skiing and snowboarding, you can rent sleds and snowmobiles. The slope here is uneven with bumps, which is why it is not suitable for beginners. There are also opportunities for winter sports in the village of Shishkovka near the Lokomotiv ski base. Every year in the vicinity of Ulan-Ude city and regional competitions in extreme sports are organized, and even on ordinary days you can see how experienced skiers and snowboarders train and perform incredible jumps.
30 km from Ulan-Ude at the foot of the Khamar-Daban ridge stands Ivolginsky Datsan. This Buddhist temple has become the spiritual capital of Buddhism in Russia. It was built in 1945 by local craftsmen. Over time, the Datsan turned into a temple complex, now it includes the main temple – Sogshin-dugan, small temples – Maidrin-sume, Devazhin and Sahyuusan-sume, the library building, the Choira Faculty of Philosophy, the educational building of the Buddhist Institute Dashi Choynhorlin, the hotel, a museum of monuments of Buddhist art, sacred stupas-suburgans, various office premises and houses of lamas. Every year, many pilgrims come to the Ivolginsky Datsan to bow to the main temple of Buddhism in Russia. The village of Truntaevo is located
56 km northeast of Ulan-Ude.. In the center of the village stands the Church of the Savior, which was built in the late 18th century – early 19th century. The Decembrist E.P. was serving his exile in Turuntaevo. Obolensky. On the northern outskirts of Turuntayevo, the remains of the burial ground of nomadic pastoralists from the Bronze Age are interesting. The burial ground consists of three slabs, which rise slightly above the ground. Nearby is a rock, in the cave of which rock paintings from the Bronze Age were discovered. Here, various figures and petroglyphs are painted on the walls with red mineral paint. A little north of Taruntaevo is the village of Zyryansk. It is known for its burial and memorial complexes in the form of burial mounds dating back to the 6th-14th centuries AD. These are mounds of stones up to 2 m high. Northeast of Zyryansk is the village of Baturino, where the grave of the Decembrist I.F. Shimkov and the Sretenskaya Church of the early 19th century with particles of the relics of Varlaam of Chikoysky and the Holy Great Martyr Eustathius of Plakida.
Ulan-Ude is the starting point for trekking along the Khamar-Daban ridge. The routes pass through Peak Porozhisty, Peak Taltsinsky, Sable Lakes and Peak Chersky. Both long hikes for trained tourists and simple ones, up to 60 km long, are arranged.